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Table 2 Sample Characteristics Before and After the Affordable Care Act (ACA), MEPS 2006–2015

From: Emergency department and inpatient utilization among U.S. older adults with multiple chronic conditions: a post-reform update

 Pre-ACA (2006–2010)ACA (2011–2013)Post-ACA (2014–2015)Overall
Sample Size15,54810,313705832,919
Population Represented16,723,98611,515,7588,256,62236,496,366
Outcomes
 Any ED Visits18.118.221.018.8
 Number of ED Visits (if 1+), Mean (SD)1.4 (0.9)1.4 (0.8)1.6 (1.1)1.4 (0.9)
 Any Inpatient Visits17.115.215.616.2
 Number of Inpatient Visits (if 1+), Mean (SD)1.4 (0.8)1.4 (0.8)1.5 (1.0)1.4 (0.9)
 Total Inpatient Nights (if 1+), Mean (SD)7.6 (10.9)7.4 (13.8)7.8 (11.6)7.6 (12.0)
 Average Number of Nights/Inpatient Visit (if 1+), Mean (SD)5.1 (6.5)5.0 (7.5)4.9 (6.2)5.0 (6.8)
Demographics
 Age, Mean (SD)74.1 (6.3)73.7 (6.4)73.5 (6.3)73.9 (6.3)
 Female (%)57.455.755.956.5
Race/Ethnicity (%)
 White (Non-Hispanic)80.879.577.479.6
 Black (Non-Hispanic)7.98.38.68.2
 Other (Non-Hispanic)4.55.16.35.1
 Hispanic6.877.77.1
Poverty Level (%)
 Poor/Negative-Income (< 100%FPL)9.39.19.29.2
 Near-Poor (100–125%FPL)7.46.26.16.7
 Low-Income (125–200%FPL)181816.317.6
 Middle-Income (200–400%FPL)29.929.327.229.1
 High-Income (≥400%FPL)35.437.441.337.4
Education (%)
 Less than High School23.718.416.620.5
 High School Diploma35.332.430.533.3
 Some College18.622.924.421.3
 Bachelor’s Degree or Higher22.326.328.625.0
Census Region (%)
 Northeast19.918.718.719.2
 Midwest22.122.822.322.4
 South37.036.837.237.0
 West21.021.721.821.4
Marital Status (%)
 Single/Never Married3.54.24.23.9
 Widowed/Divorced/Separated42.341.44041.5
 Married/Cohabiting54.254.555.854.6
 Interview Not In English (%)3.34.24.63.9
Health Status (%)
 General Health Status (Self-Rated)
  Excellent14.917.117.616.2
  Very Good29.930.531.130.4
  Good32.832.531.432.4
  Fair16.215.014.615.5
  Poor6.24.95.35.6
 Mental Health Status (Self-Rated)
  Excellent27.829.530.228.9
  Very Good30.930.429.130.3
  Good30.830.129.830.3
  Fair8.27.98.58.1
  Poor2.42.32.52.4
 Any Physical or Cognitive Limitations (Self-Reported)59.256.657.458.0
Chronic Conditions (%)
 Number of Chronic Conditions
  07.47.28.27.5
  112.611.111.411.8
  216.716.416.416.5
  316.516.916.716.7
  414.715.215.815.1
  5+32.233.231.632.4
 High Blood Pressure67.869.568.268.4
 Coronary Heart Disease19.319.918.919.4
 Angina9.07.77.18.2
 Myocardial Infarction12.311.812.412.2
 Other Heart Disease25.027.129.326.6
 Stroke12.212.211.612.0
 Diabetes20.621.423.221.4
 Emphysema6.56.56.26.4
 Asthma8.88.79.08.8
 Arthritis58.159.460.259.0
Insurance and Access to Care (%)
 Had Any Private Insurance52.352.754.653.0
 Had Any Public Insurance47.747.345.447.0
 Had Medicaid (Ever)9.710.310.010.0
 Have a Usual Source of Care93.993.994.093.9
 Cannot Get Needed Medical Care0.91.11.61.1
 Cannot Get Needed Prescription Drugs1.41.72.21.7
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