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Table 2 Sample Characteristics Before and After the Affordable Care Act (ACA), MEPS 2006–2015

From: Emergency department and inpatient utilization among U.S. older adults with multiple chronic conditions: a post-reform update

  Pre-ACA (2006–2010) ACA (2011–2013) Post-ACA (2014–2015) Overall
Sample Size 15,548 10,313 7058 32,919
Population Represented 16,723,986 11,515,758 8,256,622 36,496,366
Outcomes
 Any ED Visits 18.1 18.2 21.0 18.8
 Number of ED Visits (if 1+), Mean (SD) 1.4 (0.9) 1.4 (0.8) 1.6 (1.1) 1.4 (0.9)
 Any Inpatient Visits 17.1 15.2 15.6 16.2
 Number of Inpatient Visits (if 1+), Mean (SD) 1.4 (0.8) 1.4 (0.8) 1.5 (1.0) 1.4 (0.9)
 Total Inpatient Nights (if 1+), Mean (SD) 7.6 (10.9) 7.4 (13.8) 7.8 (11.6) 7.6 (12.0)
 Average Number of Nights/Inpatient Visit (if 1+), Mean (SD) 5.1 (6.5) 5.0 (7.5) 4.9 (6.2) 5.0 (6.8)
Demographics
 Age, Mean (SD) 74.1 (6.3) 73.7 (6.4) 73.5 (6.3) 73.9 (6.3)
 Female (%) 57.4 55.7 55.9 56.5
Race/Ethnicity (%)
 White (Non-Hispanic) 80.8 79.5 77.4 79.6
 Black (Non-Hispanic) 7.9 8.3 8.6 8.2
 Other (Non-Hispanic) 4.5 5.1 6.3 5.1
 Hispanic 6.8 7 7.7 7.1
Poverty Level (%)
 Poor/Negative-Income (< 100%FPL) 9.3 9.1 9.2 9.2
 Near-Poor (100–125%FPL) 7.4 6.2 6.1 6.7
 Low-Income (125–200%FPL) 18 18 16.3 17.6
 Middle-Income (200–400%FPL) 29.9 29.3 27.2 29.1
 High-Income (≥400%FPL) 35.4 37.4 41.3 37.4
Education (%)
 Less than High School 23.7 18.4 16.6 20.5
 High School Diploma 35.3 32.4 30.5 33.3
 Some College 18.6 22.9 24.4 21.3
 Bachelor’s Degree or Higher 22.3 26.3 28.6 25.0
Census Region (%)
 Northeast 19.9 18.7 18.7 19.2
 Midwest 22.1 22.8 22.3 22.4
 South 37.0 36.8 37.2 37.0
 West 21.0 21.7 21.8 21.4
Marital Status (%)
 Single/Never Married 3.5 4.2 4.2 3.9
 Widowed/Divorced/Separated 42.3 41.4 40 41.5
 Married/Cohabiting 54.2 54.5 55.8 54.6
 Interview Not In English (%) 3.3 4.2 4.6 3.9
Health Status (%)
 General Health Status (Self-Rated)
  Excellent 14.9 17.1 17.6 16.2
  Very Good 29.9 30.5 31.1 30.4
  Good 32.8 32.5 31.4 32.4
  Fair 16.2 15.0 14.6 15.5
  Poor 6.2 4.9 5.3 5.6
 Mental Health Status (Self-Rated)
  Excellent 27.8 29.5 30.2 28.9
  Very Good 30.9 30.4 29.1 30.3
  Good 30.8 30.1 29.8 30.3
  Fair 8.2 7.9 8.5 8.1
  Poor 2.4 2.3 2.5 2.4
 Any Physical or Cognitive Limitations (Self-Reported) 59.2 56.6 57.4 58.0
Chronic Conditions (%)
 Number of Chronic Conditions
  0 7.4 7.2 8.2 7.5
  1 12.6 11.1 11.4 11.8
  2 16.7 16.4 16.4 16.5
  3 16.5 16.9 16.7 16.7
  4 14.7 15.2 15.8 15.1
  5+ 32.2 33.2 31.6 32.4
 High Blood Pressure 67.8 69.5 68.2 68.4
 Coronary Heart Disease 19.3 19.9 18.9 19.4
 Angina 9.0 7.7 7.1 8.2
 Myocardial Infarction 12.3 11.8 12.4 12.2
 Other Heart Disease 25.0 27.1 29.3 26.6
 Stroke 12.2 12.2 11.6 12.0
 Diabetes 20.6 21.4 23.2 21.4
 Emphysema 6.5 6.5 6.2 6.4
 Asthma 8.8 8.7 9.0 8.8
 Arthritis 58.1 59.4 60.2 59.0
Insurance and Access to Care (%)
 Had Any Private Insurance 52.3 52.7 54.6 53.0
 Had Any Public Insurance 47.7 47.3 45.4 47.0
 Had Medicaid (Ever) 9.7 10.3 10.0 10.0
 Have a Usual Source of Care 93.9 93.9 94.0 93.9
 Cannot Get Needed Medical Care 0.9 1.1 1.6 1.1
 Cannot Get Needed Prescription Drugs 1.4 1.7 2.2 1.7