Skip to main content

Table 4 Domains, descriptions and study operational descriptions. 10 TDF domains and two new created domains captured by NHANES 2011–2012 items and four of the 14 TDF original domains not captured by NHANES items

From: Establishing content validity for a conceptualized instrument to measure barriers to eating a healthful diet in adults: a consensus approach

DomainDomain DescriptionStudy Operational Description
KnowledgeaAwareness of the existence of somethingAwareness of the dietary guidelines, their general health and health risks factors and the benefits of sports and recreational activities
Beliefs about capabilitiesaAcceptance of the truth, reality, or validity about an ability, talent, or facility that a person can put to constructive useAn individual’s belief about self-confidence, control, or performance concerning making appropriate dietary choices, staying healthy and engaging in sports and recreational activities
Beliefs about consequencesaAcceptance of the truth, reality, or validity about outcomes of a behavior in a given situationAn individual’s subjective rating of his/her general health, diet, and weight and his/her belief about the outcomes of making appropriate dietary choices, staying healthy and engaging in sports and recreational activities
ReinforcementaIncreasing the probability of a response by arranging a dependent relationship, or contingency, between the response and a given stimulusInternal or external responses to a person’s behavior that affect the likelihood of making appropriate dietary choices, staying healthy and engaging in sports, fitness and recreational activities
Memory, attention and decision processesaThe ability to retain information, focus selectively on aspects of the environment, and choose between two or more alternativesThe ability to retain information concerning diet and health and to be able to focus on making appropriate dietary and health choices
Environ-mental context and resourcesaAny circumstance of a person’s situation or environment that discourages or encourages the development of skills and abilities, independence, social competence, and adaptive behaviorAny characteristics of the socio-political context, organization, and the person that discourages or encourages a person to make appropriate dietary choices, stay healthy and engage in sports and recreational activities
Social influencesaThose interpersonal processes that can cause an individual to change their thoughts, feelings, or behaviorsAn individual’s association with people and situations in society that dictates the way he/she thinks about things that might affect his/her diet, health, and sports and recreational activity level
Behavioral regulationaAnything aimed at managing or changing objectively observed or measured actionsAll the things a person does concerning their diet, health and sports and recreational activities
OptimismaThe confidence that things will happen for the best, or that desired goals will be attainedAn individual’s confidence that things will happen for the best; never give up hope or look at the bright side of life
EmotionaA complex reaction pattern, involving experiential, behavioral, and physiological elements, by which the individual attempts to deal with a personally significant matter or eventA subjective psychophysiological experience that might affect a person’s likelihood of making appropriate dietary and health choices, and engaging in sports and recreational activities
Skills a, bAn ability or proficiency acquired through practiceThe competence or capacity that help a person routinely manage otherwise his/her diet and health in a productive manner, making appropriate dietary choices, staying healthy, and engaging in sports and recreational activities
Social/professional role and identitya, bA coherent set of behaviors and displayed personal qualities of an individual in a social or work settingA coherent set of dietary and health promotion behaviors and displayed personal qualities of an individual in a social setting
Intentionsa, bA conscious decision to perform a behavior or a resolve to act in a certain wayReadiness/commitment to make healthy dietary choices, stay healthy and engage in sports and recreational activities
Goalsa, bMental representation of outcomes or end states that an individual wants to achieveAn aim or an objective a person wants to achieve concerning their diet and health
cHealth IdentityNew domain created; not part of TDFA person sense of self/identity in view of a health characteristic that he/she may have to identify with or has identified with
cFunctional StatusNew domain created; not part of TDFAny functional limitations caused by long-term physical, mental, and emotional problems or illness that impact an individual’s ability to make appropriate life choices and to engage in activities that promote a healthy lifestyle
  1. aTDF original 14 domains are the first 14 domains.
  2. bFour of the 14 TDF original domains not captured by NHANES 2011–2012 items
  3. cTwo newly created domains to assign the items for which no TDF domain existed