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Table 5 Population-averaged Odds ratios (OR) and 95%CI for socioeconomic predictors of using PNC services among Ghanaian women from the final 2-level mixed logistic regression model

From: Assessing the contextual effect of community in the utilization of postnatal care services in Ghana

Predictors Null model
OR (95% CI)
Final model
AOR (95% CI)
P-value
Fixed effect
Individual-level characteristics
 Age (years)   1.00 (0.98, 1.01) 0.9
Religion
 Muslim   2.42 (1.68, 3.49)* < 0.0001
 Christians   1.99 (1.50, 2.63)* < 0.0001
 Traditional/other   Reference  
Ethnicity
 Akan   1.46 (1.05, 2.05)* 0.03
 Northern tribes   1.74 (1.19, 2.54)* 0.004
 Ga   1.87 (1.05, 3.33)* 0.03
 Other   1.05 (0.62, 1.77) 0.9
 Ewe   Reference
Educational attainment
 No education   0.72 (0.56, 0.92)* 0.009
 Primary   0.60 (0.61, 0.99)* 0.04
 Secondary/Higher   Reference
Parity
 Three or more births   0.87 (0.69, 1.11) 0.3
 Two births   1.01 (0.76, 1.35) 0.9
 One birth   Reference
Wealth status
 Poor   0.44 (0.31, 0.63)* < 0.0001
 Middle   0.60 (0.43, 0.85)* 0.004
 Rich   Reference
Community-level characteristics
Community Problem with distance to health facility
 Not a big problem   1.08 (0.89, 1.32) 0.4
 Big problem   Reference
Area of residence
 Urban   1.05 (0.75, 1.46) 0.8
 Rural   Reference
Community Poverty level
 High   0.60 (0.44, 0.81)* 0.001
 Low   Reference
Community Education level
 Percentage of women with at least secondary education per community   1.01 (1.01, 1.02)* 0.001
Community unemployment level
 Percentage of women without employment per community   0.99 (0.98, 1.00) 0.5
Random effects Null model Final model
 Community level variance (95% CI)) 1.84** (1.40, 2.42) 1.02 (0.73, 1.42)*
 ICC (95% CI) 0.36 (0.30, 0.42) 0.24 (0.18, 0.30)*
Model fit statistics
 AIC 3304.9 3146.7
 BIC 3317.7 3235.8
  1. CI confidence interval, OR Odds ratio, SE Standard error, ICC Intraclass Correlation Coefficient, AIC Akaike Information Criterion, BIC Bayesian Information Criterion; *significant at p < 0.05; GDHS data 2014