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Table 3 Distribution of women by predictors and PNC services utilization, and unadjusted odds ratios (UOR), 95%CI, and p-values for predictors of using PNC services among Ghanaian women from the univariable 2-level mixed logistic regression model

From: Assessing the contextual effect of community in the utilization of postnatal care services in Ghana

Predictors UOR (95% CI) P-value
Individual-level characteristics
 Age (years) 0.98 (0.97, 0.99) 0.02
Marital status
 Cohabitating 0.84 (0.55, 1.27) 0.4
 Widow/divorced/separated 0.94 (0.56, 1.57)
 Married 1.05 (0.72, 1.53)
 Single Reference
Religion
 Islam 3.03 (1.98, 4.65) < 0.0001
 Christians 3.04 (2.18, 4.22)
 Traditional/other Reference
Ethnicity
 Akan 1.88 (1.26, 2.81) 0.0001
 Northern tribes 1.07 (0.71, 1.62)
 Ga 2.69 (1.35, 5.33)
 Other 0.85 (0.49, 1.66)
 Ewe Reference
Parity
 Three or more births 0.65 (0.50, 0.85) 0.0005
 Two births 0.96 (0.69, 1.33)
 One birth Reference
Educational attainment
 No education 0.41 (0.31, 0.52) < 0.0001
 Primary 0.52 (0.40, 0.69)
 Secondary/Higher Reference
Wealth status
 Poor 0.18 (0.13, 0.26) < 0.0001
 Middle 0.39 (0.27, 0.58)
 Rich Reference
Employment status
 Working 0.97 (0.76, 1.24) 0.8
 Not working Reference
Community-level characteristics
Community Problem with distance to health facility
 Not a big problem 1.39 (1.11, 1.73) 0.004
 Big problem Reference
Area of residence
 Urban 3.32 (2.35, 4.68) < 0.0001
 Rural Reference
Community Poverty level
 High 0.28 (0.20, 0.41) < 0.0001
 Low Reference
Community Education level
 Percentage of women with at least secondary education per community 1.03 (1.02, 1.04) < 0.0001
Community unemployment level
 Percentage of women without employment per community 1.01 (0.99, 1.02) 0.22
  1. CI, confidence interval; UOR, unadjusted odds ratio; GDHS data 2014