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Table 2 Distribution of women by predictors and PNC services utilization, and unadjusted odds ratios (UOR), 95%CI, and p-values for predictors of using PNC services among Ghanaian women from the univariable 2-level logistic regression model

From: Assessing the contextual effect of community in the utilization of postnatal care services in Ghana

Predictors Overall (N = 4292)% Used postnatal care (N = 3605)% No postnatal care (N = 687)%
Individual-level characteristics N (%) N (%) N (%)
Age (Mean ± SD) 30.9 ± 7.33 30.6 ± 7.03 31.3 ± 7.62
Marital status
 Single 363 (8.5) 317 (87.3) 46 (12.7)
 Cohabitating 830 (19.3) 672 (81.0) 158 (19.0)
 Widow/divorced/separated 300 (7.0) 254 (84.7) 46 (15.3)
 Married 2799 (65.2) 2362 (84.4) 437 (15.6)
Religion
 Traditional/other 324 (7.5) 183 (56.5) 141(43.5)
 Islam 922 (21.5) 801(86.9) 121(13.1)
 Christians 3046 (71.0) 2621(86.0) 425(14.0)
Ethnicityb
 Akan 1642 (38.3) 1473 (89.7) 169 (10.3)
 Northern tribes 1795 (41.8) 1411 (78.6) 384 (21.4)
 Ewe 476 (11.1) 391 (82.1) 85 (17.9)
 Ga 198 (4.6) 179 (90.4) 19 (9.6)
 Other 180 (4.2) 150 (83.3) 30 (16.7)
Parity
 One birth 935 (21.8) 826 (88.3) 109 (11.7)
 Two births 838 (19.5) 737 (88.0) 101 (12.1)
 Three or more births 2519 (58.7) 2042 (81.1) 477 (18.9)
Educational attainment
 No education 1418 (33.0) 1051(74.1) 367 (25.9)
 Primary 869 (20.3) 725 (83.4) 144 (16.6)
 Secondary/Higher 2005 (46.7) 1829 (91.2) 176 (8.8)
Wealth status
 Poor 2241 (52.2) 1703 (76.0) 538 (24.0)
 Middle 811 (18.9) 751 (89.0) 89 (11.0)
 Rich 1240 (28.9) 1180 (95.2) 60 (4.8)
Employment statusa
 Not working 886 (20.7) 760 (85.8) 126 (14.2)
 Working 3403 (79.3) 2842 (83.5) 561(16.5)
Community-level characteristics
Community Problem with distance to health facility
 Not a big problem 2973 (69.3) 2603 (87.5) 370 (12.5)
 Big problem 1319 (30.7) 1002 (76.0) 317 (24,0)
Area of residence
 Urban 1777 (41.4) 1634 (92.0) 143 (8.0)
 Rural 2515 (58.6) 1971(78.4) 544 (21.6)
Community Poverty level
 Low 3046 (71.0) 2720 (89.3) 326 (10.7)
 High 1246 (29.0) 885 (71.0) 361 (29.0)
Community Education level
 Percentage of women with at least secondary education per community (Mean ± SD) 45.1 ± 26.02 54.6 ± 26.11 35.6 ± 26.20
Community unemployment level
 Percentage of women without work per community (Mean ± SD) 26.4 ± 13.01 27.6 ± 12.95 25.2 ± 13.06
  1. N, number of observations; SD, standard deviation; %, percent; aN = 4289 and bN = 4291, due to missing values; CI, confidence in; GDHS data 2014