Skip to main content

Table 8 Maternal and household characteristics associated with ANC attendance score based the 2002 and 2016 WHO recommendations to attend at least four or eight ANC visits per pregnancy (n = 1736)a, b

From: Out-of-pocket costs and time spent attending antenatal care services: a case study of pregnant women in selected rural communities in Zinder, Niger

  ANC attendance score based on four ANC visitsc ANC attendance score based on eight ANC contactsd
Spearman correlation or mean difference (95% CI) P-valuee Spearman correlation or mean difference (95% CI) P-valuee
Age, years 0.04 0.12 0.003 0.90
Adolescent
 Yes −0.09 (− 0.21, 0.04) 0.17 − 0.08 (− 0.28, 0.11) 0.40
 No Ref   Ref  
Education level
 Any formal education 0.002 (−0.11, 0.12) 0.97 0.01 (−0.17, 0.19) 0.88
 No education Ref   Ref  
Rank of woman in polygamous marriage 0.03 0.47 0.03 0.47
Principal occupation
 Housewife 0.005 (−0.12, 0.13) 0.94 −0.16 (0.36, 0.03) 0.10
 Non-housewife Ref   Ref  
Age at first pregnancy 0.009 0.72 0.009 0.70
Number of pregnancies 0.02 0.40 −0.008 0.76
Number of living children 0.04 0.17 0.008 0.75
Outcome of previous pregnancy
 Child born alive, still living −0.04 (− 0.20, 0.11) 0.61 − 0.13 (− 0.37, 0.10) 0.26
 Child not born alive or born alive and has since died Ref   Ref  
Health facility delivery in previous pregnancy 0.15 (0.04, 0.25) 0.006 0.28 (0.11, 0.44) 0.0008
Gestational age (weeks) 0.32 <.0001 0.03 0.24
Reported experiencing any danger signs in current pregnancy 0.02 (−0.18, 0.22) 0.83 0.006 (− 0.30, 0.32) 0.97
Referred to health center because of undernutrition at visit 1f −0.03 (− 0.14, 0.08) 0.56 0.05 (− 0.12, 0.22) 0.58
Reported receiving food assistance the month before the interview 0.33 (0.18, 0.48) <.0001 0.46 (0.23, 0.70) 0.0001
Received mosquito net 0.18 (0.06, 0.31) 0.005 −0.009 (− 0.21, 0.19) 0.92
Has received iron folic acid supplements 0.72 (0.62, 0.82) <.0001 0.84 (0.69, 1.0003) <.0001
Household asset index
 Above median 0.19 (0.10, 0.29) <.0001 0.22 (0.07, 0.37) 0.005
 At or below the median Ref   Ref  
Household livestock index
 Above median −0.002 (−0.10, 0.09) 0.97 0.03 (−0.12, 0.18) 0.68
 At or below the median Ref   Ref  
Housing quality
 Above median 0.10 (0.01, 0.20) 0.03 0.02 (−0.13, 0.17) 0.77
 At or below the median Ref   Ref  
Household head’s education level
 Any formal education 0.15 (0.02, 0.27) 0.02 0.23 (0.003, 0.42) 0.02
 No education Ref   Ref  
Principal occupation of the household head
 Farming related occupation −0.13 (−0.23, −0.02) 0.01 −0.21 (− 0.38, − 0.05) 0.01
 Non-farming related occupation Ref   Ref  
Levels of household food insecurity
 Food secure 0.11 (−0.01, 0.23) 0.20 0.12 (−0.06, 0.31) 0.48
 Mildly food insecure 0.17 (−0.02, 0.35)   0.10 (−0.20, 0.39)  
 Moderately food insecure 0.10 (−0.04, 0.24)   0.16 (−0.06, 0.38)  
 Severely food insecure Ref   Ref  
Season of enrollment
 Lean, rain (June–September) −0.14 (−0.26, − 0.02) 0.06 −.28 (− 0.47, − 0.10) 0.01
 Dry, post-harvest (October–February) −0.08 (− 0.20, 0.03)   −0.16 (− 0.35, 0.02)  
 Hot (March–May) Ref   Ref  
  1. aANC Antenatal care
  2. bOnly women who attended ANC visits
  3. cUntil 2016, WHO recommended at least four ANC visits for uncomplicated pregnancies with the first ANC visit occurring before the12th week of gestation, the second around 26 weeks, the third around 32 weeks and the fourth visit between 36 and 38 of gestation;
  4. dIn 2016, WHO recommended at least eight ANC contacts with the first ANC contact occurring before the12th week of gestation, the second around 20 weeks, the third around 26 weeks, the fourth around 30 weeks, the fifth around 34 weeks, the sixth around 36, the seventh around 38 weeks, and the eighth around 40 weeks of gestation;
  5. eP-values are from Spearman correlation (for continuous variable) and t-test/omnibus ANOVA F-test (for categorical variables)
  6. fUndernutrition defined as mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) < 23 cm