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Table 6 Median (Q1, Q3) out-of-pocket costs for sequential antenatal care visits by type of health care facility a, b

From: Out-of-pocket costs and time spent attending antenatal care services: a case study of pregnant women in selected rural communities in Zinder, Niger

  Antenatal care visits
First Second Third Fourth Fifth
N, total 1733 1055 523 148 33
N (%), reporting no costsc 490 (28.4%) 879 (83.3%) 448 (85.7%) 134 (90.5%) 30 (90.9%)
N (%), reporting some OPCc 1240 (71.6%) 168 (15.9%) 69 (13.3%) 13 (8.8%) 3 (9.1%)
IHC & HPd
 N (%)e 1209 (97.5%) 149 (88.7%) 55 (79.7%) 10 (76.9%) 3 (100%)
 OPC at IHC & HP 200 (100, 300) 250 (200, 700) 300 (250, 900) 250 (250, 400) 250 (200, 750)
District hospital & reference clinic
 N (%)e 21 (1.7%) 5 (3.0%) 2 (2.9%) 0 0
 OPC at district hospitals 350 (100, 2500) 1749 (1200, 4250) 950 (700, 1200)
Private clinics
 N (%)e 6 (0.5%) 13 (7.7%) 12 (17.4%) 3 (23.1%) 0
 OPC at private clinics 2750 (800, 3800) 900 (600, 1100) 900 (650, 3000) 700 (600, 1150)
  1. aMedian (1st quartile (Q1), 3rd quartile (Q3)) cost among pregnant who spent money during antenatal care visits
  2. bCosts shown in West African CFA (XOF), 1USD = 601.1615 XOF based on exchange rate on 31 December 2015
  3. cPercentages do not sum to 100% because of missing values
  4. dIHC, Integrated health center; HP, Health post; OPC, out-of-pocket costs
  5. eWomen were interviewed at any time of pregnancy and had self-selected how many ANC visits to attend and reported on sequential visits from earlier intervals, thus resulting in different available sample size per ANC visit