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Table 2 Tools for the discourse analysis adapted from J.P. Gee

From: Stroke follow-up in primary care: a discourse study on the discharge summary as a tool for knowledge transfer and collaboration


Operational definition

1) The Subject Tool

Ask why the authors have chosen the subject/topic and what are they writing about the subject. Ask also if and how they could have added more topics and why they did not.

2) The Doing and Not Just Saying Tool

Ask not just what the authors are writing, but also what they are trying to do. Accept that they may be trying to do several things.

3) The Significance Building Tool

Ask how language is being used to build up or lessen significance/ importance/ relevance for certain things, but not for others.

4) The Activities Building Tool

Ask what activity (practice)/ activities (practices) the text is building/ enacting. What activity/ activities is the text seeking to get others to recognize.

5) The Identities Building Tool

Ask what identity or identities the author is enacting or trying to get others to recognize.

6) The Relationships Building Tool

Ask how language is being used to build, sustain, or change relationships of various sorts among the authors, other people, groups or institutions.

7) The Figured Worlds Tool

Ask what typical figured worlds the words or phrases of the text are assuming and inviting readers to assume. Especially, how is the GPs situation in this figured world?

8) The Collaboration Tool

Ask in what way are words and grammatical devices being used to make the text invite to collaboration. Ask also if there are signs of the opposite in the text.

9) The Patient’s Voice Tool

Ask if the patient’s voice (questions, utterances, opinions, wishes or preferences) are commented on (other than indirectly in the anamnesis).

10) The Recipient Tool

Ask what recipient the author most likely had in mind when writing, based on the subject, contents, words and phrases in the text.