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Table 1 The baseline characteristic among the emergency department visit patients by policy intervention

From: Effectiveness of hospital emergency department regionalization and categorization policy on appropriate patient emergency care use: a nationwide observational study in Taiwan

  Regionalization Policy Intervention Categorization Policy Intervention
Pre-policy period (n = 475,991) Regionalization period (n = 340,870)   Regionalization period (n = 340,870) Categorization period (n = 448,873)  
n (%) n (%) P Value n (%) n (%) P Value
Sex
 Female 240,804 (50.6) 173,685 (51.0) 0.034 173,685 (51.0) 228,441 (50.9) 0.72
 Male 235,187 (49.4) 167,185 (49.0) 167,185 (49.0) 220,432 (49.1)
Age
  < 18 116,178 (24.4) 58,052 (17.0) < 0.001 58,052 (17.0) 65,081 (14.5) < 0.001
 18–64 251,361 (52.8) 189,921 (55.7) 189,921 (55.7) 261,301 (58.2)
  ≥ 65 108,452 (22.8) 92,897 (27.3) 92,897 (27.3) 122,491 (27.3)
Charlson Comorbidity Index
 CCI ≤ 1 371,818 (78.1) 251,609 (73.8) < 0.001 251,609 (73.8) 328,616 (73.2) 0.002
 CCI > 1 104,173 (21.9) 89,261 (26.2) 89,261 (26.2) 120,257 (26.8)
Place of residence
 Urban 119,532 (25.1) 86,117 (25.3) 0.11 86,117 (25.3) 114,076 (25.4) 0.58
 Suburban 147,321 (31.0) 105,668 (31.0) 105,668 (31.0) 138,697 (30.9)
 Rural 202,969 (42.6) 145,196 (42.6) 145,196 (42.6) 190,850 (42.5)
 Missing 6169 (1.3) 3889 (1.1) 3889 (1.1) 5250 (1.2)
Place of ED resources
 Sufficient area 385,958 (81.1) 277,692 (81.5) 0.005 277,692 (81.5) 364,120 (81.1) 0.012
 Insufficient area 90,033 (18.9) 63,178 (18.5) 63,178 (18.5) 84,753 (18.9)
Day of visit
 Weekday 306,106 (64.3) 220,022 (64.5) 0.030 220,022 (64.5) 291,980 (65.0) < 0.001
 Weekend 169,885 (35.7) 120,848 (35.5)   120,848 (35.5) 156,893 (35.0)  
Income level
 Quintile 1 (Lowest) 163,027 (34.3) 34,632 (10.2) < 0.001 34,632 (10.2) 45,746 (10.2) < 0.001
 Quintile 2 43,972 (9.2) 105,197 (30.9) 105,197 (30.9) 134,040 (29.9)
 Quintile 3 124,805 (26.2) 85,505 (25.1) 85,505 (25.1) 37,760 (8.4)
 Quintile 4 46,384 (9.7) 40,680 (11.9) 40,680 (11.9) 126,315 (28.1)
 Quintile 5 (Highest) 95,135 (20.0) 70,695 (20.7) 70,695 (20.7) 98,837 (22.0)
 Missing 2668 (0.6) 4161 (1.2) 4161 (1.2) 6175 (1.4)
Occupation
 Dependents of the insured individuals 205,782 (43.2) 128,140 (37.6) < 0.001 128,140 (37.6) 156,843 (34.9) < 0.001
 Civil servants, teachers, military personnel, and veterans 22,276 (4.7) 24,607 (7.2) 24,607 (7.2) 31,548 (7.0)
 Nonmanual workers and professionals 83,206 (17.5) 60,068 (17.6) 60,068 (17.6) 87,623 (19.5)
 Manual workers 114,506 (24.1) 92,937 (27.3) 92,937 (27.3) 126,101 (28.1)
 Other 47,737 (10.0) 31,090 (9.1) 31,090 (9.1) 40,696 (9.1)
 Missing 2484 (0.5) 4028 (1.2) 4028 (1.2) 6062 (1.4)
  1. Note: The policy of regionalization started on 13 July 2007. Moreover, the policy of categorization began on 13 July 2009. However, using the 31 July 2007 and 31 July 2009 as the cut of point