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Table 2 Unstratified Odds Ratios of Individual-Level Risky Behaviors

From: Evidence that collaborative action between local health departments and nonprofit hospitals helps foster healthy behaviors in communities: a multilevel study

  Wearing a Seatbelt Not Smoking Not Binge Drinking Getting a Flu Shot Risky Behavior Index
Odds Ratio 95% CI Odds Ratio 95% CI Odds Ratio 95% CI Odds Ratio 95% CI Odds Ratio 95% CI
Primary Predictors of Interest
 Collaborative action 1.55 0.96, 2.49 1.32* 1.11, 1.58 1.19 0.92, 1.55 1.03 0.89, 1.20 1.18* 1.10, 1.28
 Social capital index 1.09 0.67, 1.76 0.94 0.80, 1.10 0.93 0.75, 1.16 1.41* 1.07, 1.87 1.15* 1.05, 1.25
Individual-level Covariates
 Male 0.49* 0.41, 0.58 0.63* 0.48, 0.82 0.47* 0.39, 0.57 0.79* 0.69, 0.91 0.76* 0.69, 0.83
 Married 1.48* 1.12, 1.95 1.64* 1.31, 2.05 1.35* 1.00, 1.83 1.13* 1.01, 1.27 1.23* 1.09, 1.38
 College 1.37* 1.09, 1.72 1.37* 1.17, 1.61 0.94 0.70, 1.24 1.25* 1.07, 1.46 1.17* 1.07, 1.27
 Black 0.86 0.57, 1.30 1.02 0.72, 1.42 1.45* 1.06, 1.98 0.81* 0.69, 0.95 0.89 0.71, 1.12
 Hispanic 1.10 0.76, 1.58 1.56* 1.13, 2.15 1.16 0.72, 1.87 0.87 0.68, 1.11 0.90* 0.85, 0.95
 Asian 1.05 0.68, 1.64 3.10* 1.05, 9.16 3.08* 1.50, 6.32 1.10 0.77, 1.55 1.04 0.86, 1.25
 Other Race 1.05 0.43, 2.57 0.99 .042, 2.32 0.97 0.49, 1.90 0.97 0.48, 1.99 1.01 0.76, 1.32
 Age 1.16* 1.11, 1.22 1.09* 1.01, 1.17 1.35* 1.24, 1.48 1.36* 1.29, 1.43 1.14* 1.11, 1.17
 Insured 1.22 0.75, 1.97 1.64* 1.31, 2.04 1.06 0.85, 1.31 1.98* 1.46, 2.67 1.28* 1.15, 1.43
 Income < $15 k 0.94 0.47, 1.92 0.45* 0.33, 0.62 1.19 0.86, 1.65 0.88 0.64, 1.21 0.93 0.74, 1.17
 Income $15 k–75 k 0.88 0.66, 1.19 0.68* 0.54, 0.86 1.13 0.95, 1.36 0.93 0.81, 1.07 0.97 0.88, 1.06
Community-level Covariates
 Median household income 1.04 0.93, 1.16 1.03 0.97, 1.11 0.95 0.90, 1.01 1.07 0.96, 1.18 1.00 0.97, 1.04
 Percent Black 1.03 0.78, 1.36 0.93 0.83, 1.04 0.98 0.85, 1.12 0.91 0.82, 1.02 0.98 0.94, 1.02
 Above Average FTEs 0.99 0.64, 1.55 1.30* 1.09, 1.56 0.82 0.61, 1.12 0.76 0.56, 1.04 0.93 0.81, 1.07
 Local Board of Health 0.71 0.49, 1.02 0.92 0.74, 1.13 1.11 0.83, 1.65 0.90 0.67, 1.23 0.92 0.83, 1.01
State-level Covariates
 Expanded Medicaid 0.72 0.49, 1.08 0.86 0.74, 1.02 0.79* 0.63, 0.98 0.78* 0.67, 0.91 0.86* 0.80, 0.93
p-value for interaction 0.01 0.46 0.17 0.88 0.91
  1. *P < 0.05. The social capital index was dichotomized into communities with an index above the median (1 = yes) and below the median in our sample (0 = no). Individual-level covariates included being male, being married, graduating college, being Black, Asian, Hispanic, or Other race, having income in the specified range (<$15,000/year, 15,000 to 75,000/year), and having health insurance. The reference category for education was having less than a college degree and the reference for income was greater than $75,000 per year. The remaining dichotomous predictors were coded as 1 = yes; 0 = no. The number of FTEs at the LHD was =1 if the LHD had more than the average FTEs in the Profile 2013 survey (mean = 65). Community-level covariates included continuous measures of the population: percent black (Area Resource File, 2016; rescaled to a one-standard deviation change) and median household income (2014; rescaled to a $10,000 unit change). A second model with an interaction term between collaborative action and social capital was also analyzed. The p-value for interaction is provided.