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Table 3 Outcomes – Unadjusted separate and adjusted multiple models

From: Community care coordination for stroke survivors: results of a complex intervention study

Utilization of outpatient specialist services: Mixed effects logistic regression (n = 361 individuals / 91 matched groups)
  Unadjusted separate models Adjusted multiple model
  Odds ratio (95% CI) p-value Odds ratio (95% CI) p-value
Intervention (ref.: controls) 4.02 (2.35–6.86) < 0.001 4.75 (2.71–8.31) < 0.001
Age (years) 0.97 (0.95–0.99) 0.004 0.97 (0.94–0.996) 0.020
Female Sex (ref.: males) 0.76 (0.50–1.15) 0.191 0.87 (0.54–1.39) 0.560
Pre-stroke Care Dependency 0.58 (0.36–0.94) 0.026 0.78 (0.39–1.37) 0.389
Stroke Type
 - Ischemia (Ref.) 1   1  
 - Hemorrhage 1.32 (0.65–2.68) 0.446 1.33 (0.67–1.01) 0.464
 - TIA 0.79 (0.29–2.11) 0.638 0.67 (0.23–1.96) 0.469
 - non-specified 1.24 (0.39–4.00) 0.715 1.01 (0.29–3.60) 0.983
 Number of comorbidities 0.81 (0.71–0.92) 0.002 0.77 (0.66–0.90) 0.001
Recurrent strokes: Mixed effects Poisson regression (n = 361 individuals / 91 matched groups)
  Unadjusted separate models Adjusted multiple model  
  IRR (95% CI) p-value Odds ratio (95% CI) p-value
 Intervention (ref.: controls) 0.78 (0.39–1.57) 0.491 0.76 (0.38–1.54) 0.451
 Age (years) 1.01 (0.97–1.04) 0.757 1.02 (0.98–1.05) 0.301
 Female Sex (ref.: males) 0.51 (0.27–0.94) 0.031 0.49 (0.26–0.93) 0.028
 Pre-stroke Care Dependency 0.70 (0.33–1.48) 0.349 0.67 (0.31–1.44) 0.309
Stroke Type
 - Ischemia (Ref.) 1   1  
 - Hemorrhage 1.32 (0.54–3.20) 0.541 1.23 (0.52–2.90) 0.636
 - TIA 0.39 (0.05–2.92) 0.362 0.36 (0.05–2.6) 0.308
 - non-specified 1.82 (0.53–6.16) 0.339 1.31 (0.40–4.34) 0.664
Number of comorbidities 1.00 (0.84–1.19) 0.973 1.03 (0.86–1.23) 0.743
 Hospital readmissions: Mixed effects negative binomial regression (n = 361 individuals / 91 matched groups)
  Unadjusted separate models Adjusted multiple model  
  IRR (95% CI) p-value IRR (95% CI) p-value
Intervention (ref.: controls) 0.45 (0.31–0.65) < 0.001 0.42 (0.29–0.61) < 0.001
Age (years) 1.01 (1.00–1.03) 0.109   0.181
Female Sex (ref.: males) 1.01 (0.75–1.36) 0.940 0.89 (0.66–1.20) 0.452
Pre-stroke Care Dependency 1.62 (1.17–2.25) 0.004 1.38 (0.98–1.94) 0.062
Stroke Type
 - Ischemia (Ref.) 1   1  
 - Hemorrhage 1.03 (0.62–1.69) 0.916 1.10 (0.68–1.79) 0.703
 - TIA 0.96 (0.49–1.85) 0.899 1.00 (0.53–1.89) 1.000
 - non-specified 0.67 (0.28–1.64) 0.382 0.69 (0.29–1.66) 0.407
 Number of comorbidities 1.12 (1.03–1.23) 0.010 1.12 (1.03–1.22) 0.012
Mortality: Frailty survival model (n = 361 individuals / 91 matched groups, 38 events)
  Unadjusted separate models Adjusted multiple model  
  Hazard ratio (95% CI) p-value Hazard ratio (95% CI) p-value
Intervention (ref.: controls) 0.74 (0.32–1.68) 0.57 0.65 (0.28–1.49 0.386
Age (years) 1.11 (1.06–1.16) < 0.001 1.11 (1.05–1.16) < 0.001
Female Sex (ref.: males) 0.99 (0.46–2.10) 0.970 0.56 (0.26–1.23) 0.150
Pre-stroke Care Dependency 2.93 (1.38–6.24) 0.005 1.54 (0.68–3.506) 0.300
Stroke Type
 - Ischemia (Ref.) 1   1  
 - Hemorrhage 1.32 (0.42–4.13) 0.630 1.37 (0.46–4.11) 0.570
 - TIA / / / /
 - non-specified 0.76 (0.08–7.39) 0.810 1.23 (0.97–11.60) 0.860
Number of comorbidities 1.25 (1.02–1.52) 0.028 1.19 (0.97–1.46) 0.093
Hospital readmission costs: Linear mixed model (n = 361 individuals / 91 matched groups)
  Unadjusted separate models Adjusted multiple model  
  β (95 % CI) p-value β (95 % CI) p-value
constant   5.50 (4.66–6.34) < 0.001
Intervention (ref.: controls) −0.34 (−0.54 - -0.14) 0.001 −0.37 (−0.57 - -0.18) < 0.001
Age (years) 0.01 (0.001–0.02) 0.024 0.01 (− 0.002–0.02) 0.131
Female Sex (ref.: males) −0.06 (− 0.24–0.11) 0.480 −0.12 (− 0.30–0.05) 0.158
Pre-stroke Care Dependency   0.28 (0.07–0.49) 0.009
Stroke Type
 - Ischemia (Ref.)     
 - Hemorrhage 0.20 (−0.10–0.51) 0.185 0.24 (− 0.06–0.53) 0.115
 - TIA − 0.05 (− 0.46–0.36) 0.802 0.03 (− 0.37–0.43) 0.885
 - non-specified −0.01 (− 0.50–0.50) 0.980 0.04 (− 0.45–0.53) 0.874
 Number of comorbidities 0.07 (0.02–0.12) 0.012 0.06 (0.01–0.12) 0.005
Models with log-transformed costs as dependent variable
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