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Table 6 Summary of main findings with confidence intervals where relevant

From: No time for change? Impact of contextual factors on the effect of training primary care healthcare workers in Kyrgyzstan and Vietnam on how to manage asthma in children - A FRESH AIR implementation study

  Kyrgyzstan Vietnam
Effect of training on:
Asthma knowledge Increased (1.1 da, CI: 0.7 to 1.4) Increased (1.3 da, CI: 0.5 to 2.5)
Relevant history taking Increased markedly (79.1%, CI 73.9 to 84.3%) Increased somewhat (25.0%, CI 15.1 to 34.9%)
Relevant clinical examination Increase in 5/5 actions (Table 5) Decrease in 4/5 actions (Table 5)
SABA, trial or prescription Increased (19.5%, CI 6.6 to 32.4%) No change (−8.9%, CI − 18.2 to 0.4%)
Asthma diagnosis No change No change
Antibiotics use Decreased markedly (−42.2%, CI − 55.1% to −29.3%) No change (8.9%, CI − 0.05 to 18.3%)
Use of antivirals and cough medicine No change (16.8%, CI −0.5 to 34.1%) No change (2.8%, CI − 6.5 to 12.1%)
Contextual factors:
 Time for consultation 15 min 2 min
 WHO region European region Western Pacific region
 Type of health care worker Several cadres (medical doctors, clinical officers, nurses) Only medical doctors
 Baseline performance Lower Higher
 Rural vs. urban setting Tendency toward higher increases in clinical performance in the rural setting Not available
  1. CI 95% Confidence interval, MD Medical doctors, SABA Short-acting β2-agonist
  2. a Cohen’s d effect size