Skip to main content

Table 1 Key features of studies included in the review

From: Public-private partnerships in primary health care: a scoping review

Author, year Location /setting Objective(s) Type of study Services Model type Target group
Ahmed F, Nisar N, 2010 [15] Pakistan Examines barriers to further development of PPP in Pakistan Narrative review PPP (contracting out)
Ardian M et al., 2007 [13] Indonesia To describe a successful partnership between the district health department, a private company and non-governmental health care providers Descriptive-case study Case detection, treatment PPP TB case
Argaw MD et al., 2016 [25] Ethiopia To analyse health facility reports on malaria service delivery to assesses the magnitude of cases and adherence of health care workers on the national standards Retrospective descriptive Malaria diagnosis and treatment PPP Suspected of malaria
Arora V et al., 2004 [22] India To increase case notification in the revised national TB control program and to improve treatment outcome in the private sector through the implementation of dots principles Intervention Diagnosis and treatment of TB patients PPM Suspected of TB, Patient with TB
Baig M et al., 2014 [6] India Assess the nature and extent of primary health care services provided in PHCs managed by NGOs and Corporates, as compared to the government A case study Immunisation services, health promotion, treatment of common ailments, malaria management, delivery services PPP The people of a region
Balasubramanian R et al., 2006 [26] India To evaluate a rural public-private partnership model within the TB control program Cohort Case detection, treatment PPP TB case
Barr DA, 2007 [27] USA Provide an overview of the history of health-related PPPs during the past 20 years and describe a research protocol commissioned by the world health organisation to evaluate the effectiveness of PPPs in a research context Descriptive protocol PPP
Bourgeois DM et al., 2014 [28] UK Introducing an oral health collaborative promotion program called Live.Learn.Laugh Narrative review Educational and research services of oral health PPP Schools, kindergarten, mothers of students, the general population
Brad Schwartz J, Bhushan I, 2004 [7] Cambodia To examine the effects on immunisation equity of the large-scale contracting of primary healthcare services in rural areas of Cambodia Intervention Coverage targets and equity targets for all primary healthcare services, including immunisation of children PPP Five of nine rural districts which together have a population of over 1.25 M people
Chongwe G et al., 2015 [29] Zambia Determine the extent of private-sector capacity, participation, practices and adherence to national guidelines in the control of TB Cross-sectional survey Diagnose TB- manage a case of TB by providing drugs PPM TB case
Dewan PK et al., 2006 [8] India To review the characteristics of the PPM projects in India and their effect on case notification and treatment outcomes for TB Literature review Diagnosis and treatment of TB patients PPM Patients with TB and those suspected to have TB
Ejaz I et al., 2011 [30] Pakistan Presenting viewpoints of government, NGOs and donors in Pakistan about PPP Qualitative PPP
Engel N, van Lente H, 2014 [9] India Discuss three early PPMs from the point of view organisational innovation and control practices Qualitative PPM
Farahbakhsh M et al., 2012 [23] Iran Compare the performance quality of two cohorts of public and cooperative health centres in several health service delivery programs throughout 2001–2002 Cross-sectional comparative Immunisation, maternal, child healthcare, family planning, environmental health, school health, health education, outpatient visits PPP (contracting out) The population of the region (9000 to 17,000)
Fobosi S et al., 2017 [31] South Africa To inform future service development for sex workers and describe the North Star’s contribution to healthcare provision to this population in South Africa Case study Healthcare service package in roadside wellness clinics PPP Truck drivers, sex workers and their clients, and individuals from the surrounding communities that do not otherwise have access to clinics
Ganguly P et al., 2014 [32] India To explore the factors influencing private obstetricians’ decisions to enrol in the “Chiranjeevi Yojana” scheme, reasons behind their willingness or reluctance to continue, and the reasons why some choose never to participate at all Qualitative Providing free intrapartum care PPP Poor and tribal women
Ghanashyam B, 2008 [33] India A report on health care status in India and reviewing opinions for entering the private sector and participating in primary care Descriptive PPP
Gidado M, Ejembi C. 2009 [34] Kaduna state, Nigeria Comparing the roles of public and private health care facilities in the TB program and TB case management practices and treatment outcomes among patients managed in these health facilities Comparative cross-sectional Case detection, treatment PPM TB case
Gold J et al., 2012 [35] Australia Report of experience of partnering with a large private telecommunications provider in order to deliver a health promotion intervention using mobile phone text messages (SMS) Descriptive Send a promotional message to promote sexual health PPP Eligible mobile advertising subscribers
Handler AS, et al., 2015 [36] USA To illustrate how the Illinois breast and cervical cancer program as the public entity has partnered with private physicians, community clinics, and hospitals to effectively deliver breast and cervical cancer services to low-income women across Illinois Qualitative Provide quality screening, promote diagnostic services for early detection of breast and cervical cancer, disseminate culturally sensitive public information and education programs PPP Women of low income, racial/ethnic minorities, rarely or never screened, and older women
Harris DM, et al., 2012 [37] USA To raise awareness of the use of school salad bars as an important part of a comprehensive public health effort to improve child nutrition, to place 6000 salad bars in schools over 3 years Perspective Promote fruit and vegetable consumption among schoolchildren by school salad bars PPP School-age youth
Herman NG, 2008 [38] New York city Describes the program developed by New York College of Dentistry to improve New York city head start children’s oral health Descriptive-case study A comprehensive oral health program (educational, preventive and treatment services) PPP Preschool children in low-income families
Hirano D, 1998 [39] USA Provides an overview of the Arizona partnership for infant immunisation, a coalition of the Arizona Department of Health Services and its partners in the public and private sectors Overview Implementing the Arizona Department of Health Services infant immunisation action plan, improve service delivery, provider awareness, community awareness PPP All children 2 years of age by the year 2000
Imtiaz A et al., 2017 [10] Pakistan To assess the utilisation of maternal and child health services before and after implementation of PPP in district Abbottabad, Pakistan A cross-sectional study Vaccination of children in an expanded program of immunisation, vaccination of women for tetanus toxoid, postnatal visits, family planning PPP Maternal and child
Joloba M et al., 2016 [40] Uganda Redesigned the TB specimen transport network and trained healthcare workers to improve multidrug-resistant TB detection Intervention Improving multidrug-resistant TB detection by TB specimen, transport network development and training, mapping and specimen referral to the national TB reference laboratory PPP Patients with TB and those suspected to have TB
Kell K et al., 2018 [11] UK Report the main outcomes of the past 12 years of partnership, in particular, the key outreach and figures of phase III evaluation Descriptive Phase I: 2005–2009 Multiple objective public health programs; Phase II: 2010–2013 Oral health education and promotion programs with a focus on children, patients, mother and infants, communities; Phase III: 2014–2016 School oral health program,21-days education program and world oral health day activities PPP Children, patients, mother and infants, communities
Kim HJ et al., 2009 [41] Korea To improve treatment outcomes in the private sector by developing a public-private collaboration model for strengthening health education and case holding activities with public health nursing in the private sector Prospective cohort study Diagnosis and treatment of TB patients PPP Patients with TB and those suspected to have TB
Kramer K et al., 2017 [42] Tanzania To comprehensively describe the functioning of the Tanzanian national voucher scheme and examines the effectiveness and equity of the scheme Case study Provide three voucher distribution models to increase the reach of target groups for insecticide-treated nets and long-lasting insecticidal nets PPP Pregnant women and infants
Kumar M, et al., 2005 [43] India Describe and analyse the outcomes of a pilot project PPP and laboratory-based surveillance Intervention Diagnosis, treatment PPP TB case
Kumar M, et al., 2016 [44] India To assess the function of mobile medical units in Jharkhand, India and to identify the factors influencing the utilisation of mobile medical units Cross-sectional comparative Provide curative as well as preventive services PPP People in 24 remote and hard-to-reach districts in Jharkhand, India
Loevinsohn B et al., 2005 [45] USA Examine the effectiveness of contracting, examine the extent to which anticipated difficulties occurred during implementation, make recommendations about future efforts in contracting Review PPP (contracting out)
Loevinsohn B, et al., 2009 [46] Pakistan To evaluate the performance of the contractor, health facility surveys, household surveys, and routinely collected information were used to compare the experimental district with a contiguous and equally poor district Cross-sectional comparative Provide a broad range of PHC services, including preventive, promotion and curative care PPP The population covered in Rahim Yar Khan, Pakistan
Lönnroth K, et al., 2004 [47] India, Viet Nam, Kenya, India To compare processes and outcomes of four PPM projects on dots implementation for tuberculosis control in New Delhi, India; Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam; Nairobi, Kenya; and Pune, India Cross-project analysis Diagnosis and treatment of TB patients PPM Patients with TB and those suspected to have TB
Miles K et al., 2014 [21] Papua New Guinea Describes a multifaceted PPP between a major oil and gas producer, the national Department of Health and associated development partners in Papua New Guinea Descriptive Providing HIV prevention, education and treatment services PPP The local population - HIV-infected people, basic HIV awareness education to church groups, community groups and local female sex workers
Mili D, Mukharjee K. 2014 [5] India To understand the reasons for participation of NGOs in the PPP program, gauge the extent of community involvement and the benefits accrued by the communities in this program Cross-sectional Provide basic health care services PPP (contracting out) The population of the poor and remote areas of Arunachala Pradesh, India
Mohanan M, et al., 2013 [48] Gujarat, India To evaluate the effect of the Chiranjeevi Yojana program, a PPP to improve maternal and neonatal health in Gujarat, India Observational study Maternity services PPP Maternal and neonatal among poor women
Mudyarabikwa O, Regmi K, 2016 [49] UK To assess to what extent PPPs would increase efficiency in public procurement of primary healthcare facilities Qualitative PPP
Murthy K, et al., 2001 [20] India To determine whether private practitioners and the government can collaborate with a non-governmental intermediary to implement directly observed treatment, short-course strategy (DOTS) effectively Cross-sectional Case detection, treatment PPP Patients with TB and those suspected to have TB
Newell JN et al., 2004 [50] Nepal To implement and evaluate a PPP to deliver the internationally recommended strategy dots for the control of TB in Lalitpur municipality, Nepal Intervention Diagnosis and treatment of TB patients PPP Patients with TB and those suspected to have TB
Newell JN et al., 2005 [51] Nepal To describe leadership, management and technical lessons learnt from the successful implementation of a PPP for TB control in Nepal Qualitative PPP
Njau R et al., 2009 [52] Tanzania Extensive literature review of various PPP models in health in scale and in scope which are aimed at advancing public health goals in developing countries Case study PPP
Oluoha C et al., 2014 [12] Nigeria To assess the contribution of the private health facilities in providing immunisation services in four local government areas Retrospective descriptive Immunisation services PPP Children
Pal R, Pal S, 2009 [53] India Analyse the progress and success of PHC in the new millennium Perspective
Pérez-Escamilla R. 2018 [54] China, India, South Africa, Germany, the United Kingdom, Brazil and Mexico To identify the key factors of successful implementation of Mondelēz International Foundation-supported school-based PPPs in seven countries Qualitative Fostering healthy dietary and physical activity behaviours PPP Children, adolescents, women, mothers, pregnant women
Perry CL et al., 2015 [55] USA Introduces a special issue of seven articles on childhood obesity from the centre and the implications of this research for obesity prevention Literature review To address child health issues through research, service, and education PPP Child health
Quy H et al., 2003 [56] Vietnam To assess the impact on case detection of a PPM project linking private providers to the National TB Program Intervention Case detection. Treatment. PPM TB case
Ramiah I, Reich MR, 2006 [57] Botswana Analyses the multiple challenges that African Comprehensive HIV/AIDS Partnerships confronted in its first 4 years in the building and managing its relationships with other organisations and among African Comprehensive HIV/AIDS Partnerships partners Qualitative PPP
Rangan S et al., 2004 [58] India To develop a ‘model’ partnership between rural private medical practitioners and the revised national TB control program Intervention Diagnosis, treatment PPM TB case
Reviono R et al., 2017 [59] Indonesia To explore the case detection achievements of the tuberculosis program since ppm implementation in central Java, Indonesia in 2003 Retrospective cohort study Case detection, treatment PPM TB case
Ribeiro CA et al., 2016 [60] Brazil Describe public-private partnership in the prevention of influenza amongst industry workers in Ceara state, Brazil Case study Vaccination against influenza PPP Industry workers
Sheikh K et al., 2006 [61] India Review two studies on the private sector in India for TB and HIV, and highlight future policy directions for involving PPM in public health programs Cross-sectional observational Diagnosis, referrals, TB and AIDS treatment PPM Those suspected to have TB and AIDS
Sil et al., 2010 [62] USA To improve access to quality oral health care in central Massachusetts with the central Massachusetts oral health initiative Case study Oral health care PPP Mothers, pregnant women, children
Silow-Carroll S, 2008 [63] USA Describe the implementation of Iowa’s 1st Five Initiative: improving early childhood development services through public-private partnerships Narrative review Screening referrals and follow-up for mental health PPP All young children ages 0 to 5 years and their families
Sinanovic E, Kumaranayake L, 2006 [4] South Africa To evaluate the quality of care for the treatment of TB provided in different PPPs Cross-sectional comparative Case detection, treatment PWP, PNP TB case
Singh A et al., 2009 [64] India Investigating the provision of skilled nursing care and emergency care for the poor through a partnership with the private household in Gujarat, India Observational study Maternity services PPP Poor women
Tanzil S et al., 2014 [65] Pakistan Assess the range and quality of healthcare services at the basic health units in Sindh, Pakistan, administered by the district governments as compared to the basic health units which are being contracted and now managed by the peoples’ primary healthcare initiative Cross-sectional survey Primary health care services PPP (contracting out) The population of the district
Ullah ANZ et al., 2012 [66] Bangladesh Analyses the basic concepts and key issues of the existing collaboration between government and NGOs in health care Qualitative PPP
Uplekar M, 2003 [67] Switzerland Presents the guiding principles of PPM dots and major elements of the global strategy Narrative review PPM
Uplekar, 2016 [68] Switzerland To present a global perspective on the progress and prospects of expanding PPM for TB care and prevention Perspective PPM
van de Vijver S, et al., 2013 [69] Sub-Saharan Africa To describe a study design that integrates public health and private-sector approaches to lead to the development and introduction of a service delivery package for cardiovascular disease prevention among urban poor Descriptive Awareness Access to screening for CVD risk factors Treatment Seeking Long-term compliance PPP Korogocho, a Nairobi slum with a total population of 35,000, screening is for those over 35 years old
Zafar Ullah A, et al., 2006 [70] Bangladesh To develop and evaluate a PPP model to involve private medical practitioners in the TB control activities Intervention Diagnosis Treatment follow-up PPP TB case
  1. PPPs Public-Private Partnerships, TB Tuberculosis, NGO non-governmental organisations, PPM Public-Private Mix, PWP Public-Private Workplace Partnership, PNP Public-NGO Partnership