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Table 1 Characteristics of Medicaid-enrolled youth with mental illness, overall and by 2015 dental visit status. Based on health plan enrollment data and medical, pharmacy, and dental claims data with service dates between September 2014 and December 2015 (n = 6564 for sociodemographic variables; n = 5805 for health condition and prospective risk score variables)

From: Dental visits in Medicaid-enrolled youth with mental illness: an analysis of administrative claims data

Enrollee Characteristics Overall
n (%) or mean (SD)
One or more dental visits during the year
n (%) or mean (SD)
No dental visits during the year
n (%) or mean (SD)
p-value
Sex
 Female 3301 (50.29) 1011 (53.10) 2290 (49.14) 0.004
 Male 3263 (49.71) 893 (46.90) 2370 (50.86)
Age Group
 7–10 630 (9.60) 247 (12.97) 383 (8.22) < 0.001
 11–14 1540 (23.46) 503 (26.42) 1037 (22.25)
 15–18 3277 (49.92) 939 (49.32) 2338 (50.17)
 19–20 1117 (17.02) 215 (11.29) 902 (19.36)
Race/Ethnicity
 White 1881 (28.66) 510 (26.79) 1371 (29.42) 0.001
 Black / African American 1826 (27.82) 496 (26.05) 1330 (28.54)
 Hispanic 1379 (21.01) 448 (23.53) 931 (19.98)
 Other 182 (2.77) 52 (2.73) 130 (2.79)
 Not Provided 1296 (19.74) 398 (20.90) 898 (19.27)
Language
 English 5858 (89.24) 16.51 (86.71) 4207 (90.28) < 0.001
 Not English 706 (10.76) 253 (13.29) 453 (9.72)
Education Levels in County
 15% + of adults have HS degree 4650 (70.84) 1397 (73.37) 3253 (69.81) 0.014
  < 15% of adults have HS degree 1914 (29.16) 507 (26.63) 1407 (30.19)
Medicaid Eligibility Group
 SSI 1830 (27.88) 540 (28.36) 1290 (27.68) 0.754
 TANF 4552 (69.35) 1310 (68.80) 3242 (69.57)
 Other 182 (2.77) 54 (2.84)  
NCHS Urban-Rural Category
 Large Central Metro (Most Urban) 2922 (44.52) 836 (43.91) 2086 (44.76) 0.114
 Large Fringe Metro 1680 (25.59) 532 (27.94) 1148 (24.64)
 Medium Metro 1571 (23.93) 419 (22.01) 1152 (24.72)
 Small Metro 178 (2.71) 52 (2.73) 126 (2.70)
 Non- Metro (Most Rural) 213 (3.24) 65 (3.41) 148 (3.18)
County is PCP HPSA
 No 6465 (98.49) 1884 (98.95) 4581 (98.30) 0.167
 Yes 99 (1.51) 20 (1.05) 79 (1.70)
County is MH HPSA
 No 5804 (88.42) 1686 (88.55) 4118 (88.37) 0.743
 Yes 760 (11.58) 218 (11.45) 542 (11.63)
Did Member Have any Non-Dental Claims?
 No 759 (11.56) 96 (5.04) 663 (14.230 < 0.001
 Yes 5805 (88.44) 1808 (94.96) 3997 (85.77)
ADHD
 No 4085 (70.37) 1164 (64.38) 2921 (73.08) < 0.001
 Yes 1720 (29.63) 644 (35.62) 1076 (26.92)
Depression
 No 4437 (76.73) 1359 (75.17) 3078 (77.01) 0.117
 Yes 1368 (23.57) 449 (24.83) 919 (22.99)
Bipolar
 No 4771 (82.191) 1480 (81.86) 3291 (82.34) 0.544
 Yes 1034 (17.81) 328 (18.14) 706 (17.66)
Schizophrenia
 No 5489 (94.56) 1725 (95.41) 3764 (94.17) 0.063
Yes 316 (5.44) 83 (4.59) 233 (5.83)
PTSD
 No 5570 (95.95) 1717 (94.97) 3853 (96.40) 0.010
 Yes 235 (4.05) 91 (5.03) 144 (3.60)
Anxiety, no PTSD
 No 4927 (84.88) 1510 (83.52) 3417 (85.49) 0.052
 Yes 878 (15.12) 298 (16.48) 580 (14.91)
Asthma
 No 4687(80.74) 1419 (78.48) 3268 (81.76) 0.004
 Yes 1118 (19.26) 381(21.52) 729 (18.24)
Diabetes
 No 5698 (98.16) 1772 (98.01) 3926 (98.22) 0.599
 Yes 107 (1.84) 36 (1.99) 71 (1.78)
Hypertension
 No 4862 (83.76) 1460 (80.75) 3402 (85.11) < 0.001
 Yes 943 (16.24) 348 (19.25) 595 (14.89)
Pregnancy
 No 5515 (95.0) 1746 (96.57) 3769 (94.30) < 0.001
 Yes 290 (5.0) 62 (3.43) 228 (5.70)
Prospective Risk Score
(Continuous) 1.09 (1.25) 1.16 (1.24) 1.06 (1.25) 0.004
Substance Use Disorder
 No 5055 (87.08) 1602 (88.61) 3453 (86.39) 0.026
 Yes 750 (12.92) 206 (11.39) 544 (13.61)
  1. Abbreviations: ADHD Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, HPSA Health professional shortage area, HS High school, NCHS National Center for Health Statistics, MH Mental Health, PCP Primary care provider, PTSD Post-traumatic stress disorder, SSI Supplemental Security Income, TANF Temporary Aid for Needy Families
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