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Table 5 Multiple linear regression analysis for independent variables and informal caregiver’s self-reported anxiety symptoms in Italy and Sweden.

From: Self-reported symptoms of depression and anxiety among informal caregivers of persons with dementia: a cross-sectional comparative study between Sweden and Italy

Variables Self-reported anxiety symptoms
Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4
β Coefficient (SE) p* β Coefficient (SE) p* β Coefficient (SE) p* β Coefficient (SE) p*
Italy (n = 316)
Gender (female vs. male) 1.367 (0.504) 0.007 1.266 (0.511) 0.014 1.322 (0.510) 0.010 1.474 (0.518) 0.005
Caregiving, hours/day (≤5 vs. ≥6)    −0.795 (0.496) 0.110 −1.243 (0.549) 0.024 −1.205 (0.549) 0.029
Occupation (yes vs. no)      −0.988 (0.528) 0.062 −0.956 (0.527) 0.071
Type of relationship (ref. spouse)
Child        −0.599 (0.534) 0.263
Other        −1.293 (0.758) 0.089
Constant        6.753 (1.283) < 0.001
Adjusted R-squared changes 0.020   0.029   0.041   0.051  
R-squared        0.051  
Sweden (n = 74)
Caregiving, hours/day (0–24) 0.142 (0.062) 0.025 0.148 (0.061) 0.017 0.164 (0.062) 0.010 0.148 (0.062) 0.019
Additional caregivers (yes vs. no)    −1.146 (0.497) 0.024 −1.133 (0.521) 0.033 −1.443 (0.539) 0.009
Severity of disease, MMSE (mild vs. moderate)      −1.181 (0.536) 0.031 −0.906 (0.547) 0.103
Marital status (yes vs. no)        1.136 (0.612) 0.068
Constant        3638 (0.837) < 0.001
Adjusted R-squared changes 0.047   0.093   0.141   0.170  
R-squared        0.215  
  1. Data source for Italy: UP-TECH questionnaire; Sweden: TECH@HOME questionnaire.
  2. * p-value < 0.05 was regarded as significant; significant p-values are underlined
  3. n, number of participants; β, beta; SE, standard error; CI, confidence interval; MMSE, Mini-Mental State Examination (score 0–9 = severe, 10–20 = moderate,
  4. 21–24 = mild, and 25–30 = normal); HADS, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (0–7 normal, 8–10 doubtful, 11 > definite).