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Table 4 Multiple linear regression analysis for the independent variables and informal caregiver’s self-reported depression symptoms

From: Self-reported symptoms of depression and anxiety among informal caregivers of persons with dementia: a cross-sectional comparative study between Sweden and Italy

Variables Self-reported depression symptoms
Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
β Coefficient (SE) p β Coefficient (SE) p β Coefficient (SE) p
Italy (n = 316)
Gender (female vs. male) 1.607 (0.515) < 0.001 1.810 (0.517) < 0.001 −1.793 (0.516) < 0.001
Age, years (ref. > 70)
< 39    −0.836 (1.652) 0.613 −0.653 (1.649) 0.692
40–54    −1.703 (0.589) 0.004 −1.739 (0.587) 0.003
55–69    −0.863 (0.610) 0.158 −0.896 (0.608) 0.142
Additional caregivers (yes vs. no)      −1.091 (0.604) 0.072
Constant      6.183 (1.063) < 0.001
Adjusted R-squared changes 0.027   0.043   0.050  
R-squared      0.065  
Sweden (n = 86)
Caregiving, hours/day (0–24) 0.259 (0.078) < 0.001 0.270 (0.078) < 0.001 0.286 (0.077) < 0.001
Age, years (ref. > 70)
< 39    2.759 (1.444) 0.060 3.945 (1.569) 0.014
40–54    0.064 (0.862) 0.941 0.977 (0.989) 0.326
55–69    0.809 (0.762) 0.292 1.335 (0.807) 0.102
Additional caregivers (yes vs. no)      −1.362 (0.755) 0.075
Constant      2.517 (0.647) < 0.001
Adjusted R-squared changes 0.104   0.120   0.143  
R-squared      0.193  
  1. Data source for Italy: UP-TECH questionnaire; Sweden: TECH@HOME questionnaire.
  2. p-value < 0.05 was regarded as significant; significant p-values are underlined.
  3. n, number of participants; β, beta; SE, standard error; CI, confidence interval; MMSE, Mini-Mental State Examination (score 0–9 = severe, 10–20 = moderate, 21–24 = mild, and 25–30 = normal); HADS, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (0–7 normal, 8–10 doubtful, 11 > definite).