Skip to main content

Table 2 Informal caregiver’s self-reported depression symptoms and the independent variables, between Italy and Sweden

From: Self-reported symptoms of depression and anxiety among informal caregivers of persons with dementia: a cross-sectional comparative study between Sweden and Italy

Variables Self-reported depression symptoms
Italy (n = 317) Sweden (n = 89)
Mean (SD) p Mean (SD) p
Background and Context
Gender a
 Male 6.28 (4.08) < 0.001 3.43 (2.66) 0.419
 Female 7.89 (4.32)   4.24 (3.53)
Age (years) a
 < 39 7.00 (4.55) 0.204 5.80 (5.50) 0.741
 40–54 6.72 (4.19)   3.33 (2.63)
 55–69 7.49 (4.23)   4.18 (3.39)
 > 70 8.14 (4.45)   3.48 (2.65)
Marital status a
 Not Married 7.55 (4.28) 0.636 4.32 (3.64) 0.637
 Married 7.35 (4.32)   3.69 (2.98)
Education a
 Elementary school 7.48 (4.14) 0.502 3.60 (3.06) 0.104
 Gymnasium/ secondary 7.09 (4.63)   3.61 (3.42)
 University 7.96 (4.18)   5.23 (2.59)
Living with persons with dementia a b
 No 6.86 (4.20) 0.137 3.85 (3.45) 0.627
 Yes 7.67 (4.35)   3.85 (2.78)
Physical health, disease count
 0–2 7.39 (4.19) 0.626 3.82 (3.19) 0.544
 3 or more 7.36 (5.07)   4.40 (2.51)
Type of relationship with persons with dementia a
 Wife/ husband (spouse) 8.16 (4.38) 0.095 3.97 (2.80) 0.616
 Child 6.93 (4.25)   3.86 (3.42)
 Other 7.46 (4.22)   3.00 (3.52)
Primary Stressors of Dementia
Severity of disease, MMSE d
 Normal (25+) 5 (1.41) 0.693 6 (n.a.) 0.150
 Mild (21–25) 7.71 (4.54)   2.89 (2.20)
 Moderate (10–20) 7.38 (4.30)   4.23 (3.53)
Inappropriate behaviours e
 No 7.38 (4.43) 0.054 3.40 (2.86) 0.046
 Yes 7.41 (3.96)   5.09 (3.54)
ADL dependency c
 0–2 7.23 (4.14) 0.328 3.84 (3.18)
 3–6 8.07 (4.95)  
Total hours of caregiving/ day f g
 ≤ 5 7.49 (4.71) 0.573 3.54 (3.81) 0.098
 ≥ 6 7.01 (4.03)   3.83 (3.19)
Secondary Stressors of Dementia
Occupation c
 Not actively working 7.37 (4.47) 0.730 4.10 (3.03) 0.188
 Actively working 7.41 (4.12)   3.33 (3.01)
Mediators
Additional caregiver support a
 No 8.27 (3.91) 0.033 4.09 (2.89) 0.247
 Yes 7.18 (4.38)   3.61 (3.41)
Number of additional caregivers a
 0–1 7.23 (4.12) 0.387 3.78 (3.07) 0.835
 2 or more 7.87 (4.81)   4.04 (3.43)
  1. Data source for Italy: UP-TECH questionnaire; Sweden: TECH@HOME questionnaire. Independent variables selected based on the Pearlin and colleagues’ model [11] (1990). p-value < 0.05 was regarded as significant; significant p-values are underlined.
  2. n, number of participants; SD, standard deviation; MMSE, Mini-Mental State Examination (score 0–9 = severe, 10–20 = moderate, 21–24 = mild, and 25–30 = normal); ADL, Activities of Daily Living Hierarchy Scale interRAI (0 = independent, 1 = supervision, 2 = limited, 3 = extensive, 4 = maximal, 5 = dependent, 6 = total dependency); HADS, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (0–7 normal, 8–10 doubtful, 11 > definite).
  3. a 2 missing values, Sweden; b 3 missing values, Italy; c 4 missing values, Sweden; d 6 missing values, Sweden; e 12 missing values, Sweden; f 17 missing values, Italy; g 5 missing values, Sweden
\