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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of persons with dementia and informal caregivers in Sweden and Italy

From: Self-reported symptoms of depression and anxiety among informal caregivers of persons with dementia: a cross-sectional comparative study between Sweden and Italy

Persons with dementia Informal caregiver
Characteristicss Country Characteristics Country
Italy (n = 317) N (%) Sweden (n = 89) N (%) Italy (n = 317) N (%) Sweden (n = 89) N (%)
Gender    Gender c   
 Male 96 (30.3) 24 (27.0) Male 99 (31.2) 42 (47.7)
 Female 221 (69.7) 65 (73.0) Female 218 (68.8) 46 (52.3)
Age (years)    Age (years) c   
 < 69 11 (3.5) 10 (11.2) < 39 7 (2.2) 5 (5.7)
 70–79 103 (32.5) 35 (39.3) 40–54 117 (36.9) 21 (23.9)
 80–89 188 (59.3) 40 (44.9) 55–69 99 (31.2) 35 (39.8)
 > 90 15 (4.7) 4 (4.5) > 70 94 (29.7) 27 (30.7)
Living situation    Living with persons with dementia c   
 Living alone 48 (15.1) 42 (47.2) No 114 (36.0) 48 (54.5)
 Spouse 159 (50.2) 44 (49.4) Yes 200 (63.1) 40 (45.5)
 Child 68 (21.5) 1 (1.1) Relationship with persons with dementia   
 Other 42 (13.2) 2 (2.2) Spouse 98 (30.9) 38 (43.2)
Severity of disease, MMSE a    Child 173 (54.6) 44 (50.0)
 Normal (25–30) 2 (0.6) 1 (1.2) Other 46 (14.5) 6 (6.8)
 Mild (21–24) 21 (6.6) 30 (36.1) Marital status c   
 Moderate (10–20) 294 (92.7) 52 (62.7) Married 253 (79.8) 66 (75.0)
Inappropriate behaviours b    Not Married 64 (20.2) 22 (25)
 No 236 (74.4) 56 (71.8) Education c   
 Yes 81 (25.6) 22 (28.2) Elementary School 186 (58.7) 43 (48.9)
ADL dependency    Gymnasium/ Secondary 107 (33.8) 32 (36.4)
 0–2 258 (81.4) 87 (97.8) University 24 (7.6) 13 (14.8)
 3–6 59 (18.6) 2 (2.2) Occupation d   
    Not actively working 171 (53.9) 43 (50.0)
    Actively working 146 (46.1) 43 (50.0)
    Disease count c 1.09 ± 1.31 0.88 ± 0.99
    Additional caregiver support c   
    No additional help 60 (18.9) 44 (50.0)
    Yes additional help 257 (81.1) 44 (50.0)
    Number of additional caregivers c 1.15 ± 0.86 0.97 ± 1.23
    Total hours of caregiving/ day d 6.28 ± 6.44 3.67 ± 4.11
  1. Data source for Italy: UP-TECH questionnaire; Sweden: TECH@HOME questionnaire. A primary focus was given to the informal caregivers as a variety of different characteristics was investigated for them when compared to persons with dementia.
  2. Valid percentages (%) are provided with respect to the missing values.
  3. n number of participants, N frequency value and their respective percentages or mean ± standard deviation; MMSE, Mini-Mental State Examination (score 0–9 = severe, 10–20 = moderate, 21–24 = mild, and 25–30 = normal); ADL, Activities of Daily Living Hierarchy Scale interRAI (0 = independent, 1 = supervision, 2 = limited, 3 = extensive, 4 = maximal, 5 = dependent, 6 = total dependency); HADS, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (0–7 normal, 8–10 doubtful, 11 > definite).
  4. a 6 missing values, Sweden; b11 missing values, Sweden; c 1 missing value, Sweden; d 3 missing values, Sweden