Skip to main content

Table 2 Association of characteristics and testing for vitamin D level in 2018 (multivariable regression analysis)

From: Potentially inappropriate testing for vitamin D deficiency: a cross-sectional study in Switzerland

Variable   Odds Ratio (95% confidence interval)
Gender Female 1
Male 0.56 (0.55–0.58)
Age group in years 19–40 1
41–60 1.30 (1.25–1.34)
61–80 1.20 (1.15–1.24)
81+ 0.75 (0.71–0.80)
Deductible class in CHF 300 1
500 0.95 (0.92–0.98)
1000 0.71 (0.67–0.76)
1500 0.57 (0.55–0.60)
2000 0.51 (0.48–0.55)
2500 0.46 (0.44–0.48)
Health plan Unrestricted access 1
Gatekeeping by GP 1.02 (0.98–1.06)
Gatekeeping by telemedical provider 1.05 (1.01–1.09)
HMO 0.86 (0.83–0.89)
Supplementary insurance coverage No 1
Yes 1.21 (1.18–1.24)
Geographic region Eastern 1
Central 1.04 (0.98–1.09)
Mittelland 1.06 (1.02–1.11)
Northwestern 1.01 (0.96–1.07)
Western 1.13 (1.08–1.19)
Zurich 1.00 (0.96–1.06)
Urbanity levelsa Rural 1
Peri-urban 1.11 (1.05–1.16)
Urban small 1.12 (1.05–1.18)
Urban midsize 1.22 (1.16–1.28)
Urban large 1.39 (1.32–1.46)
Pregnancy No 1
Yes 1.88 (1.75–2.02)
Chronic morbditiesb 0 1
1 1.83 (1.77–1.90)
2 2.09 (2.01–2.18)
≥3 2.37 (2.26–2.48)
Renal diseaseb No 1
Yes 1.87 (1.27–2.75)
Osteoporosisb No 1
Yes 2.17 (2.02–2.32)
Epilepsyb No 1
Yes 0.92 (0.75–1.14)
Hyperparathyroidismb No 1
Yes 2.78 (1.64–4.72)
HIVb No 1
Yes 1.66 (1.33–2.06)
Glucocorticoidsb No 1
Yes 1.43 (1.34–1.53)
Vitamin D supplementationb No 1
Yes 3.96 (3.81–4.11)
  1. CHF Swiss francs, GP General practitioner model, HMO Health Maintenance Organization, HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus
  2. abased on definitions of Federal Statistical Office
  3. bbased on pharmaceutical claims