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Table 1 Characteristics of population in 2018, stratified by lab testing for vitamin D level

From: Potentially inappropriate testing for vitamin D deficiency: a cross-sectional study in Switzerland

   Population not tested for vitamin D level (N = 157,073) Population tested for vitamin D level (N = 38,384)
Variable   Percentage (95% confidence interval) Percentage (95% confidence interval)
Gender Male 50.9 (50.7–51.2) 32.4 (32.0–32.9)
Age group in years 19–40 37.6 (37.3–37.8) 22.6 (22.1–23.0)
41–60 36.6 (36.3–36.8) 35.0 (34.5–35.5)
61–80 20.8 (20.6–21.0) 33.5 (33.0–33.9)
81+ 5.0 (4.9–5.1) 9.0 (8.7–9.3)
Deductible class in CHF 300 39.4 (39.2–39.6) 59.7 (59.2–60.2)
500 12.4 (12.3–12.6) 17.0 (16.6–17.4)
1000 5.6 (5.4–5.7) 4.3 (4.1–4.5)
1500 10.1 (10.0–10.3) 5.5 (5.3–5.7)
2000 5.4 (5.2–5.5) 2.4 (2.3–2.6)
2500 27.1 (26.9–27.3) 11.0 (10.7–11.3)
Health plan Unrestricted access 14.3 (14.1–14.5) 22.6 (22.2–23.0)
Gatekeeping by GP 25.4 (25.2–25.6) 26.1 (25.7–26.6)
Gatekeeping by telemedical provider 28.7 (28.5–29) 26.5 (26.1–27.0)
HMO 31.6 (31.3–31.8) 24.7 (24.3–25.2)
Supplementary insurance coverage Yes 24.2 (24.0–24.4) 29.6 (29.1–30.0)
Geographic region Eastern 14.6 (14.4–14.8) 11.9 (11.5–12.2)
Central 9.8 (9.6–9.9) 9.0 (8.7–9.3)
Mittelland 22.3 (22.1–22.5) 21.6 (21.2–22.0)
Northwest 13.7 (13.5–13.9) 14.3 (13.9–14.6)
Western 21.6 (21.4–21.8) 25.4 (25.0–25.9)
Zurich 18.0 (17.8–18.2) 17.8 (17.4–18.2)
Urbanity levelsa Rural 10.5 (10.3–10.6) 8.5 (8.2–8.8)
Peri-urban 22.1 (21.9–22.3) 19.3 (18.9–19.7)
Urban small 8.8 (8.7–9.0) 8.4 (8.1–8.6)
Urban midsize 27.8 (27.6–28.1) 27.1 (26.7–27.6)
Urban large 30.8 (30.5–31.0) 36.7 (36.2–37.2)
Pregnancy Yes 2.4 (2.3–2.4) 3.2 (3.1–3.4)
Chronic morbiditiesb 0 74.2 (74.0–74.4) 47.7 (47.2–48.2)
1 13.6 (13.4–13.7) 22.5 (22.1–23.0)
2 7.2 (7.1–7.3) 15.4 (15.0–15.7)
≥3 5.0 (4.9–5.1) 14.5 (14.1–14.8)
Renal diseaseb Yes 0.03 (0.02–0.04) 0.3 (0.2–0.3)
Osteoporosisb Yes 1.1 (1.1–1.2) 6.8 (6.5–7.0)
Epilepsyb Yes 0.2 (0.2–0.2) 0.4 (0.3–0.4)
Hyperparathyroidismb Yes 0.01 (0.01–0.02) 0.2 (0.1–0.2)
HIVb Yes 0.1 (0.1–0.2) 0.4 (0.4–0.5)
Glucocorticoidsb Yes 1.7 (1.7–1.8) 5.1 (4.9–5.3)
Vitamin D supplementationb Yes 4.0 (3.9–4.1) 23.6 (23.2–24.0)
  1. CHF Swiss francs, GP General practitioner, HMO Health Maintenance Organization, HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus
  2. abased on definitions of Federal Statistical Office
  3. bbased on pharmaceutical claims