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Table 4 Study characteristics

From: Change and improvement 50 years in the making: a scoping review of the use of soft systems methodology in healthcare

  Number of studies %
Healthcare setting
 Hospital 15 30.6
 Policy 9 18.4
 Mental health 5 10.2
 Community 4 8.2
 Multiple settings 4 8.2
 Aged care 2 4.1
 Primary care 2 4.1
 Public health 2 4.1
 Health informatics management organisations 2 4.1
 Ambulatory care 1 2
 Ambulance service 1 2
 End-of-life care 1 2
 Blood collection establishments 1 2
Method
 Qualitative 34 69.4
 Mixed methods 14 28.6
 Quantitative 1 2
Study design
 Case study 43 87.7
 Cross-sectional 2 4.1
 Longitudinal 2 4.1
 Experimental design 2 4.1
Data collection methoda
 Interviews 38 77.6
 Observations 17 34.7
 Focus groups interviews 14 28.6
 Workshops/group discussions 14 28.6
 Survey 8 16.3
 Literature review 7 14.3
 Document analysis 5 10.2
 Administrative data 4 8.2
Number of data collection methods used
 1 17 34.7
 2 12 24.5
 3 17 34.7
 4
 5 2 4.1
 6 1 2
Quality assessment
 High quality 22 44.9
 Medium quality 21 42.9
 Low quality 6 12.2
  1. aPercentage exceeds 100 because some studies used multiple data collection methods