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Table 3 Leadership styles of directors of nursing in nursing homes

From: Leadership styles and leadership outcomes in nursing homes: a cross-sectional analysis

Directors of Nursing Mean (±SD)
(CI 99.8%)
ERS Sample Correlations Cronbach’s alpha
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8)
Transformational
(1) Idealized influence: attributed 2.36< (±0.62)
(2.10–2.63)
2.77 57          0.42
(2) Idealized influence: behavior 2.77 (±0.65)
(2.49–3.04)
2.73 58 0.59**         0.74
(3) Inspirational motivation 2.85 (±0.66)
(2.57–3.14)
2.68 57 0.67** 0.76**        0.86
(4) Intellectual stimulation 2.62 (±0.58)
(2.37–2.87)
2.74 56 0.49** 0.68** 0.66**       0.73
(5) Individual consideration 2.31< (±0.73)
(1.99–2.62)
2.75 57 0.66** 0.50** 0.58** 0.48**      0.60
Transactional
(6) Contingent Reward 2.77 (±0.69)
(2.48–3.06)
2.90 58 0.66 0.64** 0.71** 0.71** 0.55**     0.75
(7) Management by exception: active 2.30 (±0.57)
(2.05–2.54)
2.31 58 0.37** 0.39** 0.26 0.26 0.15 0.32*    0.06
Passive/avoidant
(8) Management by exception: passive 1.56> (±0.66)
(1.28–1.84)
1.16 57 −0.31* −0.23 −0.39** −0.31* −0.36** −0.39** 0.19   0.56
(9) Laissez-faire 1.20> (±0.77)
(0.87–1.53)
0.85 58 −0.45** −0.50** − 0.56** −0.43** − 0.48** −0.53** 0.02 0.55** 0.75
  1. Scores on subscales (1–9) have an available range between 0 and 4; CI Confidence Interval, ERS European Reference Scores; <: significant lower (p < 0.002) than ERS; >: significant higher (p < 0.002) than ERS; *correlation significant (p < 0.05); **correlation significant (p < 0.01)