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Table 1 Leadership styles of head nurses in nursing homes

From: Leadership styles and leadership outcomes in nursing homes: a cross-sectional analysis

Head nurses Mean (±SD)
(CI 99.8%)
ERS Sample Correlations Cronbach’s alpha
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8)
Transformational
(1) Idealized influence: attributed 2.17< (±0.67)
(2.04–2.31)
2.72 234          0.48
(2) Idealized influence: behavior 2.62 (±0.72)
(2.48–2.77)
2.69 233 0.58**         0.74
(3) Inspirational motivation 2.62< (±0.79)
(2.45–2.78)
2.83 233 0.63** 0.80**        0.86
(4) Intellectual stimulation 2.56< (±0.69)
(2.42–2.70)
2.82 234 0.62** 0.77** 0.77**       0.78
(5) Individual consideration 2.42< (±0.76)
(2.27–2.58)
2.66 234 0.61** 0.65** 0.64** 0.65**      0.65
Transactional
(6) Contingent Reward 2.57< (±0.78)
(2.41–2.73)
2.77 235 0.59** 0.79** 0.79** 0.76* 0.68**     0.81
(7) Management by exception: active 2.30 (±0.68)
(2.16–2.44)
2.33 232 0.37** 0.33** 0.29** 0.25** 0.27** 0.30**    0.62
Passive/avoidant
(8) Management by exception: passive 1.29> (±0.71)
(1.15–1.44)
1.10 233 −0.25** − 0.34** − 0.38** − 0.36** −0.23** − 0.31** 0.05   0.54
(9) Laissez-faire 1.13> (±0.78)
(0.97–1.29)
0.79 234 −0.25** −0.44** − 0.46** −0.44* − 0.39** −0.39** 0.07 0.65** 0.74
  1. Scores on subscales (1–9) have an available range between 0 and 4; CI Confidence Interval, ERS European Reference Scores; <: significant lower (p < 0.002) than ERS; >: significant higher (p < 0.002) than ERS; *correlation significant (p < 0.05); **correlation significant (p < 0.01)