Skip to main content

Table 2 Odds of accompaniment of Medicare Beneficiaries by Self-Reported Sensory Impairment

From: Accompaniment to healthcare visits: the impact of sensory impairment

Variable Odds Ratio (95% Confidence Interval) Standard Error P-Value
Sensory impairment
 No sensory impairment REF   
 Hearing impairment only 1.043 (0.841–1.293) 0.113 0.698
 Vision impairment only 2.139 (1.605–2.850) 0.310 0.000
 Dual sensory impairment 2.703 (1.549–4.718) 0. 759 0.001
Age (years)
 64 and younger REF   
 65–74 0.544 (0.440–0.673) 0.058 0.000
 75 and older 1.382 (1.163–1.643) 0.120 0.000
Gender
 Male REF   
 Female 1.063 (0.942–1.200) 0.065 0.316
Race
 Non-Hispanic White REF   
 Non-Hispanic Black 1.220 (0.999–1.492) 0.123 0.051
 Hispanic 1.650 (1.376–1.979) 0.151 0.000
 Other 1.410 (1.113–1.786) 0.168 0.005
Educational attainment
 Less than 9th grade REF   
 High school or vocational, degree 0.763 (0.643–0.907) 0.066 0.002
 More than high school 0.499 (0.420–0.594) 0.044 0.000
Income
 Less than $25,000 REF   
 Greater or equal to $25,000 0.758 (0.652–0.883) 0.058 0.000
Marital Status
 Not married REF   
 Married 2.789 (2.465–3.16) 0.174 0.000
Difficulty walking ¼ mile
 No difficulty REF   
 Little difficulty 1.449 (1.190–1.765) 0.144 0.000
 Some difficulty 1.364 (1.135–1.639) 0.126 0.001
 A lot of difficulty 2.360 (1.887–2.951) 0.266 0.000
 Unable to do it 3.524 (2.949–4.212) 0.317 0.000
General health
 Excellent REF   
 Very good 1.303 (1.095–1.550) 0.114 0.003
 Good 1.647 (1.388–1.954) 0.142 0.000
 Fair 2.116 (1.722–2.601) 0.220 0.000
 Poor 2.672 (1.941–3.678) 0.430 0.000
Medicare Medicaid dual eligibility
 Non-dual REF   
 Full dual 1.722 (1.388–2.135) 0.187 0.000
 Partial dual 1.351 (1.004–1.816) 0.202 0.047
 QMB dual 1.271 (0.889–1.817) 0.229 0.185
Depression
 Never been diagnosed REF   
 Diagnosed 0.945 (0.831–1.075) 0.061 0.389