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Table 1 Baseline clinical characteristics of the heart failure population at index date 1st January 2015 according to the presence of type 2 diabetes

From: Costs and healthcare utilisation of patients with heart failure in Spain

  No T2D (n = 11,348; 66.1%) T2D
(n = 5815; 33.9%)
Total HF
(n = 17,163; 100%)
P*
Biodemographic data
 Age, years 77.4 ± 12.6 77.2 ± 10.1 77.3 ± 11.8 0.236
 ≥ 85 years, n (%) 6308 (55.6) 2648 (45.5) 8956 (52.2) < 0.001
 Gender, male, n (%) 6052 (53.3) 3135 (53.9) 9187 (53.5) 0,470
 Body mass index, Kg/m2 28.1 (5.8) 29.5 (6.0) 28.6 (5.9) < 0.001
 Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 128.7 ± 21.9 131.8 ± 22.6 129.8 ± 22.2 < 0,001
Heart failure data
 NYHA functional class, n (%)
 I 1321 (11,6) 654 (11.3) 1975 (11.5)  
 II 5008 (44.1) 2476 (42.6) 7484 (43.6) 0.001
 III 4068 (35.9) 2135 (36.7) 6203 (36.1)  
 IV 395 (3.5) 268 (4.6) 663 (3.9)  
 Left ventricular ejection fraction, % 44.2 ± 10.6 41.5 ± 12.4 43.3 ± 11.3 < 0.001
 ≤ 40%, n (%) 5217 (51.0) 2798 (53.1) 8015 (51.7) 0.012
 > 40 - < 50%, n (%) 801 (7.8) 428 (8.1) 1229 (7.9) 0.012
 ≥ 50%, n (%) 4217 (41.2) 2039 (38.7) 6256 (40.4) 0.012
Laboratory data
 eGFR, ml/min/1.73 m2 76.1 ± 20.4 72.3 ± 20.4 74.8 ± 20.5 < 0.001
 HbA1c, % 5.2 ± 0.9 7.3 ± 0.8 6.1 ± 1.4 < 0.001
Comorbidities
Cardiovascular disease, n (%)
 Ischemic heart disease 2174 (19.1) 1834 (31.5) 4006 (23.3) < 0.001
 Myocardial infarction 1350 (11.9) 1126 (19.4) 2466 (14.4) < 0.001
 CABG 122 (1.1) 132 (2.3) 254 (1.5) 0.001
 PCI with stent 285 (2.5) 243 (4.2) 528 (3.1) < 0.001
 Unstable angina 414 (3.7) 384 (6.6) 798 (4.7) < 0.001
 Angina pectoris 686 (6.1) 493 (8.5) 1179 (6.9) < 0.001
 Stroke 1015 (8.9) 622 (10.7) 1637 (9.5) < 0.001
 Ischemic stroke 779 (6.9) 467 (8.0) 1246 (7.3) 0.005
 Hemorrhagic stroke 72 (0.6) 28 (0.5) 100 (0.6) 0.213
 Transitory ischemic attack 256 (2.3) 173 (3.0) 429 (2.5) 0.004
 Atrial Fibrillation 3339 (29.4) 1805 (31.0) 5144 (30.0) 0.029
 Peripheral artery disease 500 (4.4) 326 (5.6) 826 (4.8) 0.001
 Chronic kidney disease 2819 (24.8) 2236 (38.5) 5055 (29.5) < 0.001
 Microvascular complications 0 1810 (31.1) 1810 (10.5) < 0.001
 Diabetic mono−/polyneuropathy 0 380 (6.5) 380 (2.2) < 0.001
 Diabetic eye complications 0 1598 (27.5) 1849 (10.8) < 0.001
 Diabetic foot/peripheral angiopathy 0 251 (4.3) 264 (1.5) < 0.001
 Diabetic kidney disease 0 468 (8.1) 521 (3.0) < 0.001
 Diabetes with complications 0 3207 (55.2) 3452 (20.1) < 0.001
 Severe hypoglycemia 0 461 (7.9) 461 (2.7) < 0.001
Other comorbidities, n (%)
 Cancer 1465 (12.9) 733 (12.6) 2198 (12.8) 0.572
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 1928 (17.0) 1027 (17.7) 2955 (17.2) 0.270
 Lower limb amputations 37 (0.3) 108 (1.9) 145 (0.8) < 0.001
 Major organ specific bleeding 111 (1.0) 177 (3.0) 288 (1.7) < 0.001
Therapies
Heart failure medications, n (%) 11,348 (100) 5815 (100) 17,163 (100)
 Renin angiotensin system inhibitors 6973 (61.5) 4452 (76.6) 11,425 (66.6) < 0.001
 Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors 3354 (29.6) 1986 (34.2) 5340 (31.1) < 0.001
 Angiotensin receptor blockers 3619 (31.9) 2466 (42.4) 6085 (35.5) < 0.001
 Beta blockers 7509 (66.2) 4218 (72.5) 11,727 (68.3) < 0.001
 Loop-diuretics 7416 (65.4) 4645 (79.9) 12,061 (70.3) < 0.001
 Aldosterone antagonists 3424 (30.2) 1728 (29.7) 5152 (30.0) 0.537
 Sacubitril/valsartan 987 (8.7) 477 (8.2) 1464 (8.5) 0.272
 Digoxin 799 (7.0) 398 (6.8) 1197 (7.0) 0.632
Other cardiovascular medications, n (%)
 Low dose aspirin 3017 (26.6) 2037 (35.0) 5054 (29.5) < 0.001
 Receptor P2Y12 antagonists 1177 (10.4) 634 (10.9) 1811 (10.6) 0.284
 Statins 5928 (52.2) 3238 (55.7) 9166 (53.4) < 0.001
 Antihypertensives 2415 (21.3) 1478 (25.4) 3893 (22.7) < 0.001
 Dihydropyridines CCB 1564 (13.8) 1027 (17.7) 2591 (15.1) < 0.001
 Thiazides 520 (4,6) 268 (4,6) 788 (4.6) 0,938
 Non-hydropyridines CCB 504 (4,4) 290 (5,0) 794 (4.6) 0,107
 Nitrates 1169 (10,3) 788 (13,6) 1957 (11,4) < 0,001
 Warfarin 2438 (21,5) 1464 (25,2) 3902 (22,7) < 0,001
Diabetes medications, n (%) 0 5383 (92.6) 5383 (31.4) < 0.001
 Metformin 0 3862 (66.4) 3862 (22.5) < 0.001
 Sulfonylurea 0 1952 (33.6) 1952 (11.4) < 0.001
 DPP4 inhibitors 0 1416 (24.4) 1416 (8.3) < 0.001
 SGLT-2 inhibitors 1 (0%) 2 (0) 3 (0) < 0.001
 GLP-1 receptor agonists 0 57 (1.0) 57 (0.3) < 0.001
 Metiglinides 0 319 (5.5) 319 (1.9) < 0.001
 Glitazones 0 57 (1.0) 57 (0.3) < 0.001
 Acarbose 0 88 (1.5) 88 (0.5) < 0.001
 Insulin 0 1367 (23.5) 1367 (8.0) < 0.001
  1. T2D Type 2 diabetes, HF Heart failure, eGFR Estimated glomerular filtration rate, CABG Coronary artery bypass graft, PCI Percutaneous coronary intervention, CCB Calcium channel blockers, DPP4 Dipeptidyl peptidase 4, SGLT-2 Sodium-glucose Cotransporter-2, GLP-1 Glucagon-like peptide-1
  2. *p values comparing no T2D vs T2D