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Table 2 Data organization within the Diffusion of Innovations Model

From: Organizational structure, climate, and collaboration between juvenile justice and community mental health centers: implications for evidence-based practice implementation for adolescent substance use disorder treatment

Codes and Measures Example Quotations
Organizational Properties Community Mental Health Juvenile Justice
Staffing “Staffing is an issue. If you were to say to me, ‘tomorrow you’re going to have a consistent flow of referrals, are you able to meet the need?’ I would say probably not. We’re working really hard on that.” – Administrator, County 2 “We can’t get a case manager for the kids. If we do get them plugged into therapy, it seems like often the therapists leaves and they have to start all over again.” – Administrator, County 1
Time Constraints “My days are pretty full. So when am I going to schedule this conference call [for EBP supervision]? The program itself, I don’t really have any concerns about.” – Therapist, County 1 “I don’t have any concerns about [adding substance use screening to intake appointments], other than the fact that, because right now we schedule an intake appointment, and so we schedule those where we’ve got time to do those, and so as the intake process moves along and police start bringing kids straight from the arrest, adding more time to the intake process is a little concerning.” – Probation Officer, County 1
Existing Procedures “Typically we will get a referral through their probations electronic system asking us to complete an intake, which includes a treatment plan and a psycho-social evaluation. A diagnosis. A mental status exam. A violence risk screen.” – Therapist, County 1 “We’ve never done a formal assessment of when [substance use] is experimentation versus casual use versus more problematic use, so that has always been a struggle, and quite frankly, because we don’t use a systematic assessment, it has always been left to personal impression.” – Probation Officer, County 2
Individual and Shared Perceptions Community Mental Health Centers Juvenile Justice
Implementation Climate Scale (ICS) Assesses staff perceptions of an organization’s focus on and support for evidence-based practices. See Table 3 for scale results across organizations.
Organizational Readiness to Implement Change (ORIC) Assesses staff perceptions of an organizations’ readiness to implement a new evidence-based practice. See Table 3 for scale results across organizations.
Attitudes about importance of substance use “I think [addressing adolescent substance use] it’s very important. I do think it’s something that has become a lot more rampant. It seems they slip through the crack sometimes, especially with adolescents at like 12, 13, 14. Most of the time, I was seeing that they were already smoking pot.” – Case manager, County 1 “[Treating substance use among youth] is very important, because if we don’t treat it now, they’re just going to keep continuing using and that just causes more problems for them and their families.” – Probation Officer, County 2
Attitudes about EBP “I think [the brief interventions] will definitely be beneficial. It is good for us to see how any model that’s created, to see if it actually works. If we’re following the model, is there success from it? I think that’s important.” – Therapist, County 1 “I am very excited about getting kids the help that they need and identifying the right kids who are willing and ready to accept that help.” – Administrator, County 1
Work Performance Community Mental Health Juvenile Justice
Ability “[This site] is big and we are used to a variety of things going on all at once. And so, adding this won’t cause a major disruption. And we’ve implemented evidence-based practices before.” – Administrator, County 1 “We’ve been doing [substance use screening] here for a while now. So, we’ve all gotten pretty comfortable with it. I feel like having a more streamlined version like what [the researchers] have can be beneficial for sure because it’s very straightforward.” – Probation officer, County 1
Training “We had a discussion this morning about setting up training for case managers to feel more confident and develop some competency about dealing with [substance abuse].” – Administrator, County 2 “if we don’t have a [substance use oriented] group starting, the recovery coach piece is all we’ve got [to refer youth to], or to meet individually, just with an individual therapist, who may or may not have any substance abuse specific training” – Probation officer, county 2
Implementation Leadership Scale (ILS) Assesses staff perceptions of a leader’s ability to implement a new evidence-based practice. See Table 3 for scale results across organizations.
Collaboration Community Mental Health Juvenile Justice
Communication “I have found that [the probation officers] are pretty open with communication. The process typically works that we get a referral. If we have a group getting ready to start, we get the kids into the group, and if not, we just work on recovery coaching until the next group starts. ”– Case manager, County 1 “Case managers are always willing and open to talk and chat and try to be involved. As far as from a therapist standpoint, we don’t get a whole lot of support if it’s not during business hours.” – Administrator, County 1
Collaboration “I do have relationships with probation and the local judges. I’ve worked in this field for about 10 years and have gone in front of the judges on multiple occasions and they’re all real people, understanding and empathetic to our clients and really strive to ensure that children have the best opportunity.” – Therapist, County 2 “I appreciate what they do, what they are trying to do for our community. I admire the work that they do, and I think they do a pretty good job of putting the right people in the right places, from what I know.” – Administrator, County 2
  1. Note: Quotes have been edited for clarity and readability. “Administrator” denotes anyone in a leadership role at an organization