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Table 1 Study flow using the multi-step approach and methodological triangulation

From: Medication reviews in hospitalized patients: a qualitative study on perceptions of primary and secondary care providers on interprofessional collaboration

Steps Result Discussion in research team
Preparation interviews Construction of a topic list based on literature research and team discussions. Development of the topic list for the interviews The research team agreed on the topic list.
Exploratory face-to-face interviews with primary-CP Explore perceptions of general practitioners and community pharmacists. Themes discussed were prior experiences, attitudes and views on interprofessional collaboration between primary- and secondary-CP when performing in-hospital medication reviews. Primary-CP have little experience in performing medication reviews in secondary care. However, due to previous experiences in collaborating with secondary-CP, they can imagine both advantages and barriers of performing medication reviews in secondary care. Secondary-CP should be included in order to complete the actors involved in the interprofessional collaboration.
Exploratory face-to-face interviews with secondary-CP Explore perceptions of (internist)-geriatricians and pharmacists working in hospital. Themes discussed were identical to the ones discussed in step 2. Secondary-CP have some experience in performing medication reviews in secondary care. They also identify advantages and barriers. These are partially identical to the ones primary-CP mentioned, but differ at some points. Focus groups should be held in order to explore areas of consensus and discrepancy between both settings using group dynamics.
Meeting first- and second coder Discuss differences in coding of all interviews between first- and second coder, until consensus was reached. Development of a coding structure The research team agreed on the developed coding structure.
Preparation focus groups Combine the literature search with themes mentioned in the exploratory interviews, resulting in a topic list Development of the topic list for the focus groups The research team agreed on the topic list.
Focus group 1 Explore perceptions of primary- and secondary-CP using three main questions: 1. What are the benefits of in-hospital medication reviews? 2. What are the barriers concerning interprofessional collaboration between primary and secondary care? and 3. Given the barriers mentioned, how should this interprofessional collaboration be designed? New codes and themes arose during coding. First coder (BW) updated the coding structure. The next focus group should focus more on the barriers concerning interprofessional collaboration between primary and secondary care
Focus group 2 Explore perceptions further on the three themes (see step 6). Emphasis lies on barriers concerning interprofessional collaboration between primary and secondary care. New codes and themes arose on barriers concerning interprofessional collaboration. First coder updated the coding structure. The next focus group should focus more on solutions on how interprofessional collaboration should be designed.
Focus group 3 Explore perceptions further on the three themes (see step 6). Emphasis lies on how interprofessional collaboration should be designed. No new codes and themes arose. First coder suggested that saturation was reached, independently
Meeting first- and second coder Second coder (GP) performed second coding independently. Discuss differences in coding between first- and second coder until consensus was reached. Development of a final coding structure Second coder agreed on data saturation. The research team agreed on the final coding structure. This was then applied to all transcripts.