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Table 4 Piecewise Growth Curve Model (PGCMa) and Interrupted Latent Growth Curve Model (ILGMb) Slope Mean Differences

From: Openness in the NHS: a secondary longitudinal analysis of national staff and patient surveys

Survey Variable Model Wald Test CFI RMSEA Initial Slope Mean Interrupt Slope
Mean
Latter
Slope
Mean
NHS National Staff Survey Good communication between managers and staff (2008–2017) PGCM 2.94 .965 .063 0.2%   0.7%
ILGM 7.70** .969 .061 0.2% −0.1% 0.8%
Can contribute towards improvements
(2008–2017)
PGCM 0.11 .869 .149 1.0%   0.7%
ILGM 4.14* .875 .147 1.0% 0.0% 0.7%
Fairness and effectiveness of incident reporting procedures
(2007–2017)
PGCM 13.64*** .831 .161 0.02   0.06
ILGM 8.45** .832 .161 0.02 0.00 0.06
NHS Acute Inpatient Survey Information about condition or treatment
(2005–2016)
PGCM 0.05 .865 .087 0.3%   0.6%
ILGM 14.37** .885 .080 0.3% −0.1% 0.8%
Involvement in decisions about care and treatment
(2004–2016)
PGCM 9.03** .901 .114 0.4%   0.8%
ILGM 0.00 .900 .114 0.4% 0.0% 0.8%
Ability to talk about worries and fears
(2004–2016)
PGCM 4.27* .952 .077 −0.0%   0.2%
ILGM 0.08 .952 .078 −0.0% − 0.0% 0.2%
NHS Community Mental Health Service User Survey Listening carefully
(2007–2017)
PGCM 11.83*** .207 .175 0.3%   −1.9%
ILGM 3.03 .226 .174 0.3% 0.5% −1.8%
Enough time to discuss needs and treatment
(2007–2017)
PGCM 8.30** .363 .154 0.3%   −1.8%
ILGM 0.47 .360 .155 0.3% −0.2% −1.7%
Formal meetings to review ongoing care
(2007–2017)
PGCM 5.16 * .033 .198 1.9%   1.0%
ILGM 5.85** .098 .192 1.8% 3.2% 0.5%
Treatment with respect and dignity
(2007–2017)
PGCM 6.04** .000 .243 −0.4%   −2.5%
ILGM 17.54*** .118 .206 −0.1% −6.6% −0.4%
  1. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001
  2. a PGCM has breakpoint at 2013
  3. b ILGM has step change at 2013–2014
  4. (Fit statistics for competing models can be found in the supplementary material)