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Table 1 Outcome variables and predictors used in the study

From: Which factors are related to Finnish home care workers’ job satisfaction, stress, psychological distress and perceived quality of care? - a mixed method study

  Question Scale Mean (SD) Cronbach’s α Reference
Outcome variables
 Job satisfaction Generally speaking, I am very satisfied with my job 1 ‘fully disagree’ - 5 ‘fully agree’ 3.69 (1.05)   [43]
 Stress Do you currently feel stressed? Stress means a situation when a person feels tense, restless, nervous, or anxious, or is unable to sleep at night because his or her mind is troubled all the time. 1 ‘not at all’ - 5 ‘very much’ 2.70 (1.10)   [44]
 Psychological distress Have you recently lost a lot of sleep over worry?; Have you recently been feeling unhappy and depressed?; Have you recently felt constantly under strain?; Have you recently felt you couldn’t overcome your difficulties? 1 ‘not at all’ - 4 ‘much more than usually’ 2.14 (.74) .83 [45]
Quality of care How would you assess your co-workers’ …     
1) professional competence, 2) way of treating clients, 3) friendliness, 4) ability to answer clients’ requests for assistance, 5) ability to consider clients’ self-determination, 6) knowledge of issues related to the client and 7) ability to consider the client’s next of kin. 1 ‘bad’ - 5 ‘excellent’ 3.99 (.49) .87 [46]
Predictors
Work stressors
  How often, during the past 6 months, have you felt disturbed, worried or strained due to …     
  Working alone Lack of consultation possibilities and collegial help? 1 ‘never’ - 5 ‘very often’ 3.02 (1.08)   [47]
  Interruptions Constant interruptions and that work cannot be performed uninterrupted? 1 ‘never’ - 5 ‘very often’ 3.02 (1.14)   [47]
  Time pressure I do not have enough time for patients; I do not have enough time to perform work properly; I only have time for the necessary tasks 1 ‘never’ - 5 ‘very often’ 3.56 (.95) .89 [48]
Organizational justice
  Relational justice My supervisor treats his/her employees with kindness and consideration; My supervisor treats his/her employees respectfully; My supervisor considers his/her employees’ needs and listens to them. 1 ‘fully disagree’ - 5 ‘fully agree’ 4.19 (.92) .93 [49]
Job control
  Skill discretion My work requires that I learn new skills 1 ‘fully disagree’ - 5 ‘fully agree’ 4.36 (.75)   [10, 11]
  Autonomy At my work, I can make a lot of independent decisions 1 ‘fully disagree’ - 5 ‘fully agree’ 3.75 (.83)   [10, 11]
  Social support When needed, I receive support from my 1. co-workers, 2. supervisors. 1 ‘never’ - 5 ‘always’ 3.81 (.83) .63 [10, 11]
Teamwork
  Participative safety We have a “we are in it together” attitude; We keep each other informed about work related issues; We feel understood and accepted by each other; There are real attempts to share information throughout the practice 1 ‘fully disagree’ - 5 ‘fully agree’ 3.68 (.73) .83 [50]
  Shared goals Are you in agreement with the objectives set at you unit?; To what extent do you think your team’s objectives are clearly understood by other members of the team?; To what extent do you think your team’s objectives can actually be achieved?; How worthwhile do you think these objectives are to your team? 1 ‘very little’ - 5 ‘very much’ 3.71 (.57) .77 [50]
  Idea implementation New initiatives and ideas are taken up and assessed; At our work community, we can independently decide upon the implementation of a new development idea; At my work community, new thoughts and ideas are taken into action efficiently; Initiatives and ideas often lead to new practices, services and products in our organization 1 ‘fully disagree’ - 5 ‘fully agree’ 2.91 (.78) .81 [50]
  Support for innovation Search for new ways of looking at problems; Time taken to develop ideas; Cooperation in developing and applying ideas 1 ‘fully disagree’ - 5 ‘fully agree’ 3.13 (.72) .75 [51]