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Table 3 Geographic inequalities in maternal healthcare use between the rural and urban area and across the six geopolitical zones of Nigeria: 2003–2018

From: Geographical and socioeconomic inequalities in the utilization of maternal healthcare services in Nigeria: 2003–2017

Year Inequalities between urban and rural areas Inequalities across geopolitical zones
RR RD T BGV
ANC FBD SBA ANC FBD SBA ANC FBD SBA ANC FBD SBA
1998 1.552 2.980 3.717 0.271 0.385 0.218 0.356 1.053 3.041 0.024 0.158 0.240
1999 1.449 2.521 2.439 0.209 0.307 0.324 0.475 1.274 1.116 0.016 0.114 0.106
2000 1.902 2.433 2.003 0.368 0.296 0.298 0.489 0.907 0.815 0.052 0.069 0.062
2001 1.872 2.174 2.267 0.339 0.294 0.323 0.500 0.938 0.884 0.051 0.079 0.088
2002 1.952 2.060 2.155 0.352 0.269 0.308 0.558 1.006 0.902 0.057 0.068 0.077
2003 1.444 2.093 2.278 0.254 0.358 0.103 0.253 0.626 4.001 0.017 0.071 0.090
2004 1.740 2.602 2.545 0.333 0.381 0.388 0.384 0.941 0.879 0.039 0.123 0.117
2005 2.149 2.572 2.495 0.439 0.363 0.381 0.472 0.996 0.877 0.077 0.120 0.112
2006 2.058 2.613 2.539 0.393 0.375 0.395 0.535 0.961 0.840 0.067 0.124 0.117
2007 2.078 2.746 2.536 0.399 0.393 0.398 0.529 0.986 0.846 0.069 0.139 0.116
2008 2.104 2.751 3.286 0.431 0.408 0.293 0.379 0.795 1.681 0.070 0.131 0.185
2009 2.100 3.098 3.176 0.422 0.406 0.445 0.410 1.012 0.908 0.070 0.169 0.176
2010 2.021 2.790 2.970 0.382 0.384 0.431 0.487 0.944 0.864 0.064 0.139 0.156
2011 1.888 2.779 2.915 0.374 0.411 0.458 0.408 0.825 0.745 0.052 0.136 0.149
2012 1.979 2.679 2.825 0.380 0.392 0.437 0.462 0.859 0.783 0.060 0.128 0.142
2013 1.375 2.125 2.951 0.218 0.369 0.079 0.203 0.493 6.430 0.011 0.067 0.145
2014 1.627 2.468 2.521 0.317 0.359 0.394 0.267 0.815 0.723 0.029 0.105 0.109
2015 1.652 2.552 2.569 0.309 0.375 0.405 0.326 0.813 0.725 0.032 0.113 0.115
2016 1.676 2.334 2.351 0.302 0.357 0.391 0.391 0.736 0.639 0.034 0.092 0.094
2017 1.635 2.371 2.478 0.296 0.377 0.421 0.361 0.692 0.620 0.031 0.095 0.105
Time trend coefficients (P-value) −0.002 (0.852) 0.000 (0.967) 0.006 (0.719) 0.001 (0.853) 0.003 (0.024) 0.007 (0.109) −0.007 (0.072) −0.018 (0.004) −0.019 (0.743) 0.000 (0.836) 0.000 (0.883) 0.000 (0.927)
  1. RR Rate Ratio, RD Rate Difference, T Theil Index, BGV Between Group Variance, ANC Antenatal care, FBD Facility based delivery, SBA Skilled birth attendance