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Table 2 Adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals for the effect of patient race/ethnicity on the likelihood of diagnostic imaging being ordered during United States emergency department visits from 2006 to 2016

From: The influence of patient race on the use of diagnostic imaging in United States emergency departments: data from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care survey

  Patient race/ethnicitya
Imaging modality: White Any minority group Black Hispanic Asian/other
-Any imaging 1.00 (ref) 0.84 (0.79–0.89) 0.78 (0.72–0.84) 0.94 (0.89–1.00) 0.82 (0.72–0.94)
-X-ray 1.00 (ref) 0.91 (0.86–0.96) 0.89 (0.82–0.96) 0.93 (0.87–1.00) 0.93 (0.81–1.06)
-CT 1.00 (ref) 0.78 (0.73–0.84) 0.70 (0.64–0.76) 0.92 (0.84–1.01) 0.78 (0.67–0.92)
-MRI 1.00 (ref) 0.86 (0.65–1.13) 0.75 (0.54–1.05) 0.90 (0.62–1.29) 1.34 (0.88–2.04)
-Ultrasound 1.00 (ref) 1.03 (0.92–1.14) 0.99 (0.88–1.12) 1.10 (0.94–1.27) 0.91 (0.69–1.20)
  1. Adjusted odds ratios evaluating the influence of patient race/ethnicity on the ordering of medical imaging during United States emergency department visits from 2006 to 2016 are shown. Odds ratios were adjusted for age, gender, insurance payor, number of co-morbid conditions, hospital region and setting, and survey year
  2. aThe collapsed racial ethnic categories of non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, Hispanic, and Asian/other were used for analysis