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Table 3 Impact of health insurance and health workforce on healthcare use before and after China’s health system reform

From: Synergy of policies to strengthen primary care: evidence from a national repeated cross-sectional study

  Self-medication (IRR) Outpatient visits (IRR) Hospital admissions (IRR)
  Before China’s health system reform After China’s health system reform Before China’s health system reform After China’s health system reform Before China’s health system reform After China’s health system reform
ARR at PHC institutions 0.99*
(0.99, 1.00)
0.91**
(0.90, 0.93)
1.19***
(1.12, 1.27)
1.04
(0.99, 1.10)
1.55***
(1.28, 1.88)
1.42 ***
(1.27, 1.59)
ARR at county hospitals 0.96***
(0.94, 0.98)
0.90***
(0.88, 0.92)
1.16***
(1.08, 1.23)
1.01
(0.96, 1.06)
1.82***
(1.47, 2.25)
1.02
(0.77, 1.36)
Physicians density at PHC institutions 0.79*
(0.77, 0.81)
0.83**
(0.81, 0.85)
1.13***
(1.04, 1.22)
1.11***
(1.05, 1.18)
1.61 ***
(1.41, 1.84)
1.00
(0.98, 1.01)
Physicians density at county hospitals 0.99
(0.92, 1.06)
0.91*
(0.88, 0.95)
1.38***
(1.29, 1.48)
1.08***
(1.02, 1.15)
1.03 **
(1.00, 1.05)
0.98 **
(0.97, 0.99)
  1. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001