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Table 8 Tobit Regression Results for the Effect of Poor People Health Insurance Program on Inpatient Out-of-Pocket Health Expenditures

From: Effect of health insurance program for the poor on out-of-pocket inpatient care cost in India: evidence from a nationally representative cross-sectional survey

Out-of-Pocket Health Expenditures Coefficient 95% CI P value
Public Health Insurance for the Poor
 Not enrolled (Reference)
  Enrolled −950.36 − 2501.5 – 600.8 0.230
Duration of Stay in Hospital 521.40 435.3–607.5 0.000
Social Group
 Other Backward Classes (Reference)
  Scheduled Tribes − 1073.94 − 2818.9 – 671.0 0.228
  Scheduled Castes −664.54 − 2328.9 – 999.8 0.434
   Others − 273.32 − 2251.1 – 1704.4 0.786
Education
 Illiterate (Reference)
   Primary/middle school educated 1104.02 −232.8 - 2440.8 0.105
  Secondary school educated 285.39 − 2359.5 - 2930.3 0.832
  Higher secondary school educated − 1972.92 − 5096.8 - 1151.0 0.216
  Diploma/graduate/post graduate educated 7634.86 2798.5–12,471.3 0.002
Household Type
 Self-employed (Reference)
  Regular wage/Salary earning 1034.10 −903.7 - 2971.9 0.295
  Casual labor − 1275.76 − 2654.2 - 102.6 0.070
0.934
  Others 140.24 − 3201.5 – 3482.0
Age Groups
 0–18 years (Reference)
  19 to 40 years 1857.13 −68.3 - 3782.6 0.059
  41 to 60 years 2231.96 234.3–4229.6 0.029
  61 to 80 years 87.75 − 2479.5 - 2655.0 0.947
  Older than 80 years − 1018.33 − 7587.8 - 5551.1 0.761
Household Size
  Small household (Reference)
  Medium household (5 to 8 members) 352.09 − 1064.2 - 1768.3 0.626
  Large household (9 & more members) 2008.08 −79.56 - 4095.7 0.059
Number of Hospital Beds in States
 Less than 10,000 beds (Reference)
  10,000 to 20,000 beds 5850.75 − 7936.7 - 19,638.2 0.405
  Greater than 20,000 beds 7440.12 − 5846.1 - 20,726.3 0.272
Nature of Treatment
 Allopathic treatment (Reference)
  AYUSH − 9020.48 −16,224.0 - -1817.0 0.014
Level of Care Inpatient
 Sub-center/PHC/CHC (Reference)
  Public Hospital 949.24 − 958.0 - 2856.5 0.329
   Private Hospital 3772.82 1004.0–6541.6 0.008
Type of Ward
 Free (Reference)
  Paying General 9095.49 6978.9–11,212.1 0.000
   Paying Special 13,642.31 9856.4–17,428.3 0.000
Sector
 Rural (Reference)
  Urban − 309.89 − 1754.5 - 1134.7 0.674
Nature of Ailment/ diseases
 Infections (Reference)
  Cancers, blood, endocrine, metabolic, eye, ear 3012.40 538.7–5486.1 0.017
  Cardiovascular, respiratory diseases 3741.79 1137.1–6346.5 0.005
  Gastrointestinal disease − 1184.58 − 3790.0 -1420.8 0.373
  Skin, musculoskeletal, psychiatric, neurological 2798.06 381.2–5214.9 0.023
  Genitourinary, obstetric & childbirth 21.09 − 1858.7 - 1900.9 0.982
  Injuries 4338.32 1727.1–6949.5 0.001
Constant − 5660.85 −18,905.2 - 7583.5 0.402