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Table 4 Multivariate-adjusted coefficients and 95% CIs for length of hospital stay with macro-level variance

From: An analysis of equity in treatment of hip fractures for older patients with dementia in acute care hospitals: observational study using nationwide hospital claims data in Japan

N = 214,601 model 1 (all patients, N = 214,601) model 2 (surgery only, N = 159,173) model 3 (non-surgery only, N = 55,428)
  coef. 95% C.I. P value coef. 95% C.I. P value coef. 95% C.I. P value
Compositional factor
 Sex
  Male (reference)             
  Female −0.23 −0.44 − 0.02 0.04 − 0.60 − 0.77 − 0.44 < 0.001 0.31 − 0.34 0.96 0.35
 Age Group
  65–79 (ref.)             
  80–89 1.52 1.31 1.74 < 0.001 1.16 1.00 1.33 < 0.001 2.17 1.49 2.86 < 0.001
  Over 90 0.85 0.58 1.11 < 0.001 0.92 0.72 1.13 < 0.001 1.32 0.52 2.12 < 0.001
 Dementia Levela
  No dementia (ref.)             
  Dementia level 1 0.67 0.44 0.89 < 0.001 0.21 0.04 0.39 0.02 1.96 1.28 2.63 < 0.001
  Dementia level 2 −1.70 −1.96 − 1.44 < 0.001 −1.50 − 1.70 − 1.30 < 0.001 −0.56 − 1.34 0.22 0.16
 Fx. Type
  Femoral neck (ref.)             
  Trochanteric 0.24 0.06 0.42 0.01 −0.56 −0.70 − 0.42 < 0.001 2.38 1.84 2.93 < 0.001
  Subtrochanteric 3.57 2.82 4.32 < 0.001 3.00 2.35 3.66 < 0.001 5.68 3.84 7.53 < 0.001
 Charlson Index
  0 (ref.)             
  1 1.03 0.82 1.24 < 0.001 0.97 0.81 1.13 < 0.001 1.39 0.73 2.06 < 0.001
   ≥ 2 2.32 2.09 2.55 < 0.001 2.46 2.28 2.64 < 0.001 2.55 1.84 3.26 < 0.001
 Coma Levelb
  Alert (ref.)             
  Level 1 −0.94 −1.23 − 0.66 < 0.001 − 0.36 − 0.57 −0.14 < 0.001 − 1.43 −2.31 − 0.54 < 0.001
  Level 2 − 0.42 −1.71 0.88 0.53 0.22 −0.82 1.25 0.68 0.21 −3.45 3.86 0.91
  Level 3 −3.14 −7.81 1.53 0.19 0.72 −3.31 4.76 0.73 −8.37 −19.80 3.06 0.15
 Ambulance Use
  No ambulance use (ref.)             
  Ambulance use 1.05 0.87 1.24 < 0.001 1.94 1.80 2.08 < 0.001 −1.47 −2.10 −0.84 < 0.001
Contextual factor
 City levelc
  Designated city (ref.)             
  Pop. ≥150,000 −0.02 −1.58 1.53 0.98 −2.53 −3.78 −1.27 < 0.001 0.95 −1.00 2.90 0.34
  Pop. 80,000≤, ≤150,000 0.25 −1.68 2.19 0.80 −1.96 −3.53 −0.39 0.02 0.68 −1.72 3.08 0.58
  Pop. ≤80,000 1.51 −0.19 3.21 0.08 −0.15 −1.56 1.25 0.83 1.85 −0.25 3.96 0.09
 Hosp. functiond
  Under 200 beds hosp.(ref.)             
  Over 200 beds hosp. −7.87 −9.26 −6.47 < 0.001 −4.13 −5.37 −2.89 < 0.001 −8.42 −10.14 −6.70 < 0.001
  Regional support hosp. −12.04 − 13.98 − 10.09 < 0.001 −9.02 − 10.68 − 7.35 < 0.001 − 12.61 − 15.01 − 10.22 < 0.001
  University & advanced hosp. − 15.69 −18.50 − 12.87 < 0.001 − 10.41 − 12.75 −8.08 < 0.001 − 17.79 − 21.77 − 13.82 < 0.001
 Discharge to
  Home (ref.)             
  Recovery ward (same hosp.) −22.33 −22.88 − 21.78 < 0.001 −15.66 −16.18 − 15.13 < 0.001 −27.83 − 29.06 − 26.60 < 0.001
  Other hospital −5.95 −6.19 −5.71 < 0.001 − 2.60 − 2.79 − 2.40 < 0.001 −15.82 − 16.60 − 15.04 < 0.001
  Long-term care facility −5.95 − 6.24 − 5.66 < 0.001 − 5.05 − 5.29 − 4.81 < 0.001 − 4.79 − 5.56 − 4.01 < 0.001
  Death 1.46 0.66 2.26 < 0.001 − 1.93 −2.62 −1.25 < 0.001 8.47 6.48 10.46 < 0.001
  Unknown −2.75 −5.25 −0.24 0.03 −1.04 −3.13 1.06 0.33 −4.30 −10.74 2.14 0.19
Macro-level variance (S.E.)
between hospitals 116.1 (5.30)    75.3 (3.70)    136.8 (7.27)   
  1. aDementia level 1 and 2: represents “degree of independence in daily life for elderly people with dementia” criteria I-II and III-IV/M, respectively. bComa level refers to the Japan Coma Scale (JCS) which has four decisive levels of consciousness. cDesignated city has population over 500,000 and is designated by order of the Cabinet of Japan under Local Autonomy Law. dAdvanced hospitals include 6 national centers for cancer, circulation and global health. Regional support hospital has over 200 beds and meets requirements such as referral rate over 80% for outpatients