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Table 2 Multivariate-adjusted odds ratios and 95% Confidence Intervals for application of surgery

From: An analysis of equity in treatment of hip fractures for older patients with dementia in acute care hospitals: observational study using nationwide hospital claims data in Japan

N = 214,601 model 1 (age, sex) model 2 (Dementia level only) model 3 (with clinical factors) model 4 (with hospital factors)
  OR 95% C.I. P value OR 95% C.I. P value OR 95% C.I. P value OR 95% C.I. P value
Compositional factor
 Sex
  Male (reference)                 
  Female 1.15 1.12 1.19 < 0.001      1.16 1.12 1.19 < 0.001 1.16 1.12 1.19 < 0.001
 Age Group
  65–79 (ref.)                 
  80–89 0.87 0.84 0.89 < 0.001      0.87 0.84 0.90 < 0.001 0.87 0.84 0.90 < 0.001
  Over 90 0.67 0.64 0.69 < 0.001      0.67 0.65 0.70 < 0.001 0.67 0.65 0.70 < 0.001
 Dementia Levela
  No dementia (ref.)                 
  Dementia level 1      0.94 0.91 0.97 < 0.001 1.03 1.00 1.06 0.08 1.03 1.00 1.06 0.06
  Dementia level 2      1.06 1.02 1.09 < 0.001 1.20 1.16 1.25 < 0.001 1.21 1.16 1.25 < 0.001
 Fx. Type
  Femoral neck (ref.)                 
  Trochanteric          0.79 0.77 0.81 < 0.001 0.79 0.77 0.81 < 0.001
  Subtrochanteric          0.42 0.38 0.46 < 0.001 0.42 0.38 0.46 < 0.001
 Charlson Index
  0 (ref.)                 
  1          1.18 1.15 1.22 < 0.001 1.18 1.15 1.22 < 0.001
   ≥ 2          1.00 0.97 1.03 0.96 1.00 0.97 1.03 0.93
 Coma Levelb
  Alert (ref.)                 
  Level 1          0.94 0.91 0.98 0.01 0.94 0.90 0.98 0.00
  Level 2          0.67 0.56 0.80 < 0.001 0.67 0.56 0.80 < 0.001
  Level 3          0.55 0.31 1.00 0.05 0.56 0.31 1.01 0.05
 Ambulance Use
  No ambulance use (ref.)                 
  Ambulance use          1.37 1.33 1.40 < 0.001 1.36 1.33 1.40 < 0.001
Contextual factor
 City levelc
  Designated city (ref.)                 
  Pop. ≥150,000              1.04 0.82 1.32 0.76
  Pop. 80,000≤, ≤150,000             1.24 0.92 1.67 0.16
  Pop. ≤80,000              0.97 0.74 1.26 0.80
 Hosp. functiond
  Under 200 beds hosp.(ref.)                
  Over 200 beds hosp.              8.36 6.73 10.40 < 0.001
  Regional support hosp.              15.07 11.13 20.42 < 0.001
  University & advanced hosp.             10.90 7.05 16.83 < 0.001
Macro-level variance (S.E.)
 between hospitals (n = 1328) 4.18 (0.20)    4.20 (0.20)    4.04 (0.19)    2.83 (0.13)   
  1. aDementia level 1 and 2: represents “degree of independence in daily life for elderly people with dementia” criteria I-II and III-IV/M, respectively. bComa level refers to the Japan Coma Scale (JCS) which has four decisive levels of consciousness. cDesignated city has population over 500,000 and is designated by order of the Cabinet of Japan under Local Autonomy Law. dAdvanced hospitals include 6 national centers for cancer, circulation and global health. Regional support hospital has over 200 beds and meets requirements such as referral rate over 80% for outpatients