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Table 3 Characteristics of included studies

From: What works, why and how? A scoping review and logic model of rural clinical placements for allied health students

No. Reference Study characteristics
Citation no. Authors, year, title Country Allied Health Group Study Design Structure & organisation of RCP
Placements designed to expose students to rural practice
1 [33] Brown, Macdonald- Wicks, Squires, Crowley & Harris (2015)
An innovative dietetic student placement model in rural New South Wales, Australia
Australia Dietetics Cross sectional: audit of 10 years of student placement survey data Students undertake year-long attachment to rural area - living in one town while completing coursework, research project and placements in region
2 [34] Capstick S, Beresford R, Gray A. (2008)
Rural pharmacy in New Zealand: effects of a compulsory externship on student perspectives and implications for workforce shortage.
New Zealand Pharmacy Uncontrolled Before-After: A single group of pharmacy students was surveyed, pre- and post-externship, with subjective, self-reported, non-matched responses being recorded Single-site program where students observed and participated in all activities of the pharmacy practice
3a [35] Page & Hamilton (2015) Pharmacy students’ perceptions of a non-traditional rural placement: A pilot programme Australia Pharmacy Quasi-qualitative: The students’ daily reflections and detailed postplacement reflection were analysed using a qualitative thematic methodology. 2-week observational placement in rural community working with a range of disciplines. Weekly meeting with rural pharmacy academic. Final year students.
4 [36] Paterson, McColl & Paterson (2004)
Preparing allied health students for fieldwork in smaller communities.
Canada Occupational therapy & Physiotherapy Uncontrolled Before-After: Evaluation of pre and post placement questionnaires measuring student attitudes toward living and working in smaller communities following a three-tiered intervention: 5-day pre-placement workshop; weekly teleconferenced support; financial assistance. Single-site program supported by pre-placement workshop for students, teleconferencing during the placement and financial assistance.
5 [37] Wolfgang, Dutton & Wakely (2014)
Creating positive rural experiences for occupational therapy students
Australia Occupational Therapy Quasi-qualitative: Occupational therapy student placement feedback was collated from an online University of Newcastle Department of Rural Health (UoNDRH) student survey they are asked to complete. Four sites programs - occupational therapy student placed at a single site - supported by UDRH provided training & support and opportunities to participate in community development project
Placements designed to address community needs
6 [38] Allan, O’Meara, Pope, Higgs & Kent (2011)
The role of context in establishing university clinics
Australia Multiple allied health professions Qualitative (consultative inquiry): literature & document review; site visits & interviews with key stakeholders. University clinics include: on-campus university clinic provided by a single professional group; Outreach services offered to another site, coordinated through university clinic; partnership with local health agencies.
7 [39] Averett, Carawan & Burroughs (2012)
Getting “tillerized”: traits and outcomes of students in a rural community field placement
United States of America Social Work Qualitative: process evaluation study using interviews and focus groups A ‘macro’ rural placement for social work students in an underprivileged rural area with no on-site field instructor and minimal structure. Macro and micro experiences requiring number of professional social work roles.
8 [40] Boucaut (1998)
Health education activities conducted by physiotherapy students on field trips to rural areas: a case study
Australia Physiotherapy Descriptive case study / reflective opinion piece using student and academic reflections against the Ottawa Charter of health promotion. Students planned, implemented and evaluated a program of health promotion for a rural community
9 [41] Frakes K-A, Brownie S, Davies L, Thomas JB, Miller M-E, Tyack Z.
(2014)
Capricornia Allied Health Partnership (CAHP): a case study of an innovative model of care addressing chronic disease through a regional student-assisted clinic
Australia Multiple AHPs Cross sectional (plus descriptive): routine data capture of key outcomes over a 12-month period Student- run clinic, based on Wagner’s chronic care model, where students work in an interprofessional clinical environment to deliver outpatient ‘chronic disease early intervention and management’ services under supervision
10 [42] Frakes K-A, Brownie S, Davies L, Thomas J, Miller M-E, Tyack Z. (2014)
Experiences from an interprofessional student-assisted chronic disease clinic.
Australia Multiple AHPs Qualitative: Structured interviews were undertaken between students and a clinical educator (other than their primary supervisor) on the last day of their clinical placement Student- run clinic where students work in an interprofessional clinical environment to deliver outpatient ‘chronic disease early intervention and management’ services under supervision. 2–10-week placement.
11 [18] Jones D, Grant-Thomson D, Bourne E, Clark P, Beck H, Lyle D (2011)
Model for rural and remote speech pathology student placements: Using non-traditional sites and partnerships
Australia Speech Pathology Cross Sectional: Longitudinal routine data capture of referrals to, consumer access to and use of student service: Each consultation was documented on a standard form, reviewed by the speech pathologist and filed in school records. Student-run clinics in rural primary schools and aged care/disability services. Students work in pairs running clinics supervised by local therapists.
12 [43] Kirby S, Held FP, Jones D, Lyle D. (2018)
Growing health partnerships in rural and remote communities: what drives the joint efforts of primary schools and universities in maintaining service-learning partnerships?
Australia Speech Pathology Mixed methods: parallel convergent mixed methods design that combined data analysis from qualitative interviews and online quantitative social network surveys (unvalidated). Participants included speech pathology academics from source universities; host site academics; host site school principals and teaching staff; local site and state education officials; clinical speech pathologists who were engaged as supervisors. Service-learning placement: students provide classroom based paediatric communication impairment service with supervision from external health service and support from university.
13 [44] Moosa & Schurr (2011)
Reflections on a Northern Ontario Placement Initiative
Canada Speech Language Pathology Descriptive case study / reflective opinion piece Under the guidance of the clinical supervisors, the SLP students developed the services and resources requested by the communities, and the programming materials to be shared with the school and hospital staff
Placements designed to provide students with a specific skill set (Interprofessional)
14 [45] Cragg B, Hirsh M, Jelley W, Barnes P. (2010)
An interprofessional rural clinical placement pilot project
Canada Multiple AHPs, nursing & medicine – (physiotherapy, and spiritual care). Mixed Methods. All students, preceptors, and facilitators participated in semi-structured interviews, and the Interdisciplinary Education Perception Scale (IEPS; Luecht, Madsen, Taugher, & Petterson, 1990), that measures interprofessional attitudes, was administered to students and preceptors pre and post placement Usual clinical placement supplemented with weekly, one-hour IP education sessions guided by two local facilitators. The sessions were case-based and structured using elements of collaborative learning for students.
15 [46] Guion WK, Mishoe SC, Taft AA, Campbell CA. (2006)
Connecting allied health students to rural communities
United States of America Multiple AHPs - physician assistant, health information management, occupational therapy, physical therapy, and respiratory therapy Mixed methods project evaluation. Most of the data are based on responses to open-ended questions from student participants, program administrators, and clinical site supervisors. Rural IP clinical rotation where IP teams of students explored health care access and availability problems.
16 [47] Gum LF, Richards JN, Walters L, Forgan J, Lopriore M, Nobes C, et al. (2013)
Immersing undergraduates into an interprofessional longitudinal rural placement
Australia Multiple AHPs: Nutrition and Dietetic, Speech Pathology and Paramedics Qualitative: exploration of student perspectives of rural Interprofessional placements through focus groups and self-reflection. ; Placement supplemented with Interprofessional participation in a joint fortnightly Interprofessional learning practicum. Types of activities in the Interprofessional program included case studies, role plays, journal club, work shadowing and invited speakers.
17 [48] McNair R, Stone N, Sims J, Curtis C. (2005)
Australian evidence for interprofessional education contributing to effective teamwork preparation and interest in rural practice.
Australia Multi-professional - AHPs, nursing and medicine (physiotherapy, pharmacy) Uncontrolled Before - After: before after measurement of student learning outcomes using Barr’s educational outcomes framework for the Interprofessional setting. Students worked in small Interprofessional teams of 2–4 in rural community health settings supplemented with Joint home visits, observation of team working. Online discussion forum and worked on a joint project.
18 [49] Mu K, Chao CC, Jensen GM, Royeen CB. (2004)
Effects of interprofessional rural training on students’ perceptions of interprofessional health care services.
United States of America Multi-professional - Occupational Therapy, Physiotherapy, Pharmacy and Paraprofessionals (OT assistants and PT assistants) Mixed methods: Quasi-experimental design using before after measurement of student learning outcomes (IEPS scores), self-assessment tool AND qualitative data collected using a reflection journal and debriefing notes. Short- & long-term programs involving Interprofessional teams spending time as a team in various activities e.g. community visits, shad-owing activities with clinicians, volunteer activities.
3a [35] Page AT, Hamilton SJ. (2015) Pharmacy students’ perceptions of a non-traditional rural placement: A pilot programme Australia Pharmacy Quasi-qualitative: The students’ daily reflections and detailed postplacement reflection were analysed using a qualitative thematic methodology. 2-week observational placement in rural community working with a range of disciplines. Weekly meeting with rural pharmacy academic. Final year students.
  1. aIncluded in both interprofessional and exposure to rural practice placement models