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Table 1 Comparison of demography, details of referring facility, indications and transport in pre vs post intervention phases

From: Referrals to a pediatric emergency department of a tertiary care teaching hospital before and after introduction of a referral education module - a quality improvement study

  Preintervention N = 1403 Post intervention N = 957 P value
Age Median (IQR) 3.6 (1.9–7) 3.8 (2.3–7) 0.04
Boys N (%) 860 (61.3) 574 (60) 0.52
Residential area
Rural N (%) 969 (69) 623 (65) 0.04
Urban N (%) 434 (31) 334 (35)
Referring States
 Punjab 695 (49.5) 450 (47) 0.23
 Haryana 313 (22.3) 194 (20.3) 0.24
 Chandigarh 190 (13.6) 154 (16.1) 0.08
 Himachal Pradesh 147 (10.5) 91 (9.5) 0.44
 Uttar Pradesh 58 (4.1) 68 (7.1) 0.002
Type of referring facility
Public sector 1198 (85.4%) 799 (83.5%) 0.21
  Medical College & Teaching Hospital 664(47.3%) 397(41.4%) 0.005
  Community Health Care Centers 317(22.5%) 205(21.4%) 0.50
  District Hospitals 217(15.4%) 197(20.5%) 0.001
Corporate sector 205 (14.6%) 158 (16.5%) 0.21
  Private Hospitals 186(13.2%) 147(15.3%) 0.15
  Medical College & Teaching Hospitals 19(0.01%) 11(0.01%) 0.66
Mode of transport
 Government ambulance services 1200 (85.5) 820 (85.6) 0.91
 Private ambulance services 147 (10.5) 95 (10) 0.66
 Self-owned vehicles 56 (4) 42 (4.4) 0.63
Reasons for referral
 Need for PICU /Mechanical ventilation 654 (46.6) 482 (50.4) 0.07
 Expert consultation 569 (40.5) 343 (35.8) 0.02
 Financial constraints 140 (10) 101 (10.6) 0.65
 Parental request 40 (2.9) 31 (3.2) 0.47
  1. Foot note: Rural, Urban description adapted from Indian census 2011 [10]