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Table 3 Description of included literature

From: Transnationalism and care of migrant families during pregnancy, postpartum and early-childhood: an integrative review

# 1st Author year Objective Country Location Care, program or intervention examined Design/Methodologya Sample & Data collection methods Migrant groups included in the researchb
1. Akhavan 2012 [46] To explore the experiences of doula support among foreign-born women in Sweden in the context of a “Community-Based Doula” intervention project Sweden Community-based doula Qualitative descriptive 10 mothers Tunisia, Somalia, Yemen, Iraq, Turkey, Morocco, Azerbaijan
Interviews
LOT*: 1 to 3.5 years
Refugee, family sponsored
2. Akhavan 2012 [47] To describe and analyze midwives’ experiences of doula support for immigrant women in Sweden Sweden Community-based doula Qualitative descriptive 10 midwives N/A
Interviews
3. AlJaberi 2018 [48] To develop a comprehensive understanding of the pregnancy health and social needs of low-income Caribbean immigrants towards informing the development of a mHealth intervention United States Pregnancy mobile health intervention Qualitative descriptive 12 mothers Caribbean
Focus groups Immigrant
4. AlJaberi 2018 [49] To understand the emotional, physical, information and social challenges affecting low-income women’s prenatal well-being practices towards developing a mHealth intervention for these women United States Pregnancy mobile health intervention Qualitative descriptive 12 mothers Caribbean
Focus groups Immigrant
5. Almeida 2014 [50] To verify whether there are differences regarding women’s perceptions of quality and appropriateness of care received between immigrant and native women during pregnancy and postpartum Portugal Healthcare during pregnancy and postpartum Qualitative descriptive 31 mothers African countries (Portuguese-speaking), Brazil, Eastern European countries
Interviews
LOT: 2 to 20 years
Immigrant, undocumented
6. Almeida 2014 [51] To provide qualitative information on the access, use and perceived quality of care during pregnancy and early motherhood, reported by a group of immigrants in a large urban area in northern Portugal; Portuguese women were also interviewed for comparison Portugal Care during pregnancy and early motherhood Qualitative descriptive 31 mothers African countries (Portuguese-speaking), Brazil, Eastern European countries
Interviews
LOT: 2 to 20 years
Immigrant, undocumented
7. Anderson 2014 [52] To explore recent immigrant mothers’ experiences accessing and utilizing primary healthcare for their young children 1–5 years old Canada Primary healthcare for children 1 to 5 years old Qualitative descriptive 32 mothers Latin American, Sri Lankan Tamil
Interviews LOT: ≤ 5 years
Arrived as refugee claimant or was family-sponsored
8. Ayers 2018 [53] To explore maternal health care provider’s perspective of barriers in providing care to Marshallese women and providers perceived barriers of access to care among Marshallese women United States Maternal healthcare Phenomenology 15 nurses, 2 obstetricians and 2 other healthcare providers (unspecified) N/A
Focus groups and interviews
9. Aubé 2019 [31] To describe the challenges and protective factors that affect the well-being of migrant mothers and how La Maison Bleue, a community-based perinatal health and social centre, strengthens resilience among these families Canada A community-based perinatal health and social centre Focused ethnography 24 mothers Bangladesh, Saint-Lucia, Democratic Republic of Congo, Morocco, Mexico, Cameroon, Eritrea, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, India, Algeria
Interviews and observations
LOT: <  1 to 11 years
Immigrant, refugee, asylum seeker, undocumented
10. Balaam 2016 [54] To explore the experience of voluntary and non-statutory sector workers supporting asylum-seeking and refugee women during pregnancy and early motherhood United Kingdom Voluntary and non-statutory support for childbearing refugee and asylum seeking women Qualitative descriptive 19 volunteer and non-statutory (paid and unpaid) workers N/A
Individual and focus group interviews
11. Barkensjo 2018 [55] To describe women’s experiences of clinical encounters throughout pregnancy and childbirth, when living as undocumented migrants in Sweden Sweden Maternity care Qualitative descriptive 13 mothers Macedonia, Romania, Bosnia, Albania, Somalia, Afghanistan, Serbia, Chechnya, Morocco, Kosovo
Interviews
Undocumented, EU citizens without residency permits
12. Barona-Vilar 2013 [56] To explore the experiences and perceptions of parenthood and maternal health care among Latin American women living in Spain Spain Maternal health care Qualitative descriptive 26 mothers and 24 midwives Bolivia, Ecuador
Focus groups LOT: 1 to 9 years
Immigrant, undocumented
13. Beaudet 2016 [22] To evaluate a support-group intervention developed collaboratively between a community organization and a local health clinic to address isolation and support recently-arrived immigrant mothers with children aged 0 to 2 years Canada Community support-group intervention for immigrant mothers Qualitative descriptive 13 mothers, 2 administrators, 2 support group workers & 1 social worker (support group committee), Mothers and children participating in the support group, and Administrators & workers from the community organization China, Colombia, Korea, Egypt, France, Honduras, India, Iran, Iraq, Japan, Lebanon, Libya, Poland, Singapore, Taiwan
LOT: 8 women < 2 years, others longer
Immigrant
Interviews, discussion groups, observations of support group sessions and committee meetings, and a review of documents (support-group participation logbook, child assessments, support-group journal)
14. Bircher 2009 [57] To describe the challenges of migrant farm workers during pregnancy and to suggest ways that advanced practice nurses can provide cost effective, competent professional care to reduce or eliminate the obstacles to prenatal care for this population United States Prenatal care offered by a nurse practitioner Discussion paper
15. Boerleider 2014 [58] To gain insight into how Dutch postnatal care providers - maternity care assistants -address issues encountered when providing care for non-western women Netherlands Postnatal care Qualitative descriptive 15 maternity-care assistants N/A
Interviews
16. Briscoe 2009 [59] To explore the experience of maternity care by asylum seekers and one refugee United Kingdom Maternity care Multiple case study 4 mothers Afghanistan, Congo, Rwanda, Somalia
Photographs, observations, and LOT: <  1 year to just under 3 years
interviews Refugee, asylum seeker
17. Busch 2018 [60] To investigate challenges and possible solutions in a specialized early childhood education and care (ECEC) program for refugee children Germany A specialized ECEC for refugee children Mixed-methods (qualitative descriptive followed by a survey based on the qualitative data) 28 early-childhood educators N/A
96 early-childhood educators (a second sample)
Interviews and questionnaire
18. Carolan 2010 [61] To explore the experiences and concerns of an African-born sample of pregnant women receiving antenatal care in Melbourne Australia Antenatal care Qualitative descriptive 18 mothers Ethiopia, Sudan, Eritrea, Kenya, Somalia
Interviews LOT: <  1 year to 2 years
Refugee, family-reunification visa, immigrant
Dinka, Amharic, Christian
19. Clark 2007 [62] To identify Mexican American mother’s expectations from children’s health care services (during the first 19 months of their child’s life) United States Children’s health care Focused ethnography 28 mothers Mexico
Interviews Immigrant, undocumented
20. Coley 2012 [41] To 1) describe the development of the Moms Matter support group; 2) illustrate the effects of incorporating cultural competence and social support in childbirth education; and 3) suggest implications for the future development of pregnancy support programs for diverse immigrant populations United States Support group to enhance prenatal and postnatal education for immigrant mothers Qualitative descriptive 7 mothers Nigeria, Ghana, Nepal, Mexico, India, Jordan
Interviews
Immigrant
21. Coutinho 2014 [63] To identify the unmet expectations of Portuguese immigrant women, for the National Health System, during pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum Portugal Maternity care Qualitative descriptive 82 mothers Brazil, Ukraine, China, Moldova, Russia, France
Interviews
Immigrant
22. Doering 2015 [64] To explore how some Japanese women experienced pregnancy, labor and birth care in New Zealand New Zealand Maternity care Qualitative descriptive 13 mothers Japan
Interviews and a focus group LOT: 2 to 19 years
Immigrant
23. Degni 2012 [65] To explore physicians and nurses/midwives’ communication when providing reproductive and maternity health care to Somali women in Finland Finland Maternity care Qualitative description 10 obstetricians, 7 nurses, and 8 midwives N/A
Individual and focus group interviews
24. Degni 2014 [66] To explore immigrant Somali women’s experiences of reproductive and maternity health care services and their perceptions of the service providers Finland Maternity care Qualitative descriptive 70 mothers Somalia
Focus groups LOT: ‘recently migrated’
Refugee
25. Dempsey 2016 [67] To explore migrant Eastern European women’s experience of pregnancy in Ireland Ireland Maternity care Grounded theory approach 12 mothers Poland, Lithuania, Hungary, Czech Republic
Interviews LOT: 1 to 8 years
Economic immigrant
26. DeStephano 2010 [68] To determine the acceptability of a culturally tailored prenatal health education video series for Somali women and explore health providers’ perceptions regarding usefulness of the videos in facilitating improved client–provider communication United States Culturally tailored prenatal health education video series for Somali women Quantitative descriptive with a qualitative component 22 mothers, 2 fathers and obstetricians who cared for the 22 women Somalia
Refugee
Questionnaires
27. Gabai 2013 [69] To explore the experiences of patients and maternity care-givers in a maternity context France Maternity care Grounded theory 4 mothers, 10 obstetricians and midwives Lebanon, Ivory Coast, Democratic Republic of Congo, Tunisia
Interviews LOT: 3 to 11 years
Immigrant
28. Grewal 2008 [70] To describe new immigrant Punjabi women’s perinatal experiences and the ways that traditional beliefs and practices are legitimized and incorporated into the Canadian health care context Canada Perinatal care Qualitative descriptive 15 mothers, 5 public health nurses India
Interviews and a focus group LOT: ≤ 5 years
Immigrant
Punjabi
29. Higginbottom 2013 [71] To map out the experiences of immigrant Sudanese women in maternity services Canada Maternity services Focused ethnography 12 mothers Sudan
Focus group interviews LOT: ≤ 5 years
Refugee
30. Hill 2012 [72] To describe Somali immigrant women’s health care experiences and beliefs regarding pregnancy and birth United States Maternity care Qualitative descriptive 18 mothers Somalia
Focus group interviews LOT: 1.5 to 12 years
Refugee
31. Hurley 2014 [73] To investigate the challenges and innovative practices in early childhood special education (ECSE) services for preschool aged children who are refugees United States Early childhood special education (ECSE) services Qualitative descriptive 28 early-childhood educators
Interviews
N/A
32. Iliadi 2008 [74] To examine whether refugee women resettled in Greece, receive antenatal care and to explore possible factors that may influence their attitude towards maternal care Greece Maternity care Focused ethnography 26 mothers
Interviews
Iraq, Iran, Sudan, Lebanon, Syria, Afghanistan, Armenia, Turkey, Albania, Serbia, Zaire
Refugee
33. Karl-Trummer 2006 [75] To evaluate a prenatal training course developed for pregnant migrant/ethnic women Italy Prenatal training course for migrant women Mixed-methods (qualitative descriptive in conjunction with a survey) 41 mothers and 32 healthcare providers Turkey, India, Pakistan
Austria Immigrant
Interviews and questionnaire
34. Lebiger-Vogel 2019 [76] To present and discuss the FIRST STEPS project in Belgium and the FIRST STEPS project in Frankfurt and Berlin (FIRST STEPS is a prevention/support intervention offered to immigrant women in early childhood and which aims to optimize the early developmental environment of children) Belgium Early-childhood support program for immigrant parents Discussion paper
Germany
35. Lyberg 2012 [77] To illuminate midwives’ and public health nurses’ perceptions of managing and supporting prenatal and postnatal migrant women in Norway Norway Maternity care Qualitative descriptive 5 midwives and 1 public health nurse N/A
Focus groups
36. Lyons 2008 [78] To explore the experiences, understanding and perspectives of maternity service providers when working with ethnic minority women in Dublin maternity services during 2002 and 2003 Ireland Maternity services Grounded theory approach 42 obstetricians, midwives, nurses, and key informants from specialized areas of infection control, social services and bereavement services N/A
Focus groups and interviews
37. Mangrio 2017 [79] To shed light on the experience of non-European immigrants with Sweden’s child health care system Sweden Child health care Qualitative descriptive 14 mothers and 5 fathers Afghanistan, Chile, India, Iraq, Kurdistan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Pakistan, Palestine, Venezuela, Vietnam
Interviews
LOT: 2 to 22 years
Immigrant, refugee
38. McLaughlin 2012 [80] To explore the lived experiences of parenting amongst a group of Burmese refugee mothers and their perceptions of how facilitated playgroups assist them in their parenting role Australia Facilitated playgroup Phenomenology 9 mothers, 2 playgroup staff and 1 kindergarten teacher
Focus groups, interviews
Burma
Refugee
39. Merry 2011 [81] To gain a greater understanding of the barriers asylum seeking women face in accessing health and social services postpartum Canada Health and social services postpartum Qualitative descriptive 112 mothers Africa, Asia, Europe, Latin America
Review of nurses’ notes LOT: ≤ 5 years
Asylum seeker
40. Mukasa 2016 [82] To 1) understand the disparities in access to maternal and child health (MCH) services experienced by recent African immigrant mothers in the United States; 2) explore circumstances that led to MCH access disparities experienced by this population; and 3) understand how access disparities affected participants’ overall experience of seeking MCH care services United States Maternal and child health services Phenomenology 11 mothers Sub-Saharan Africa
Interviews LOT: 1.5 to 4 years
Immigrant, refugee, asylum seeker
41. Nabb 2006 [83] To explore the perceptions of pregnant asylum-seekers in relation to the provision of maternity care while in emergency accommodation in the UK United Kingdom Maternity care Qualitative descriptive 10 mothers and 5 healthcare professionals Africa, Asia, Eastern Europe
Asylum seeker
Interviews
42. Ng 2011 [84] To understand the difficulties health care professionals face when delivering prenatal care to immigrant women Canada Prenatal care Qualitative descriptive 3 midwives, 5 nurses practitioners, and 2 obstetricians N/A
Interviews
43. Ny 2006 [85] To describe how men from the Middle East experience Swedish maternity and child health care Sweden Maternal and child healthcare Qualitative descriptive 16 fathers Middle-East
Interviews and focus groups LOT: 1–15 years
Immigrant
44. Owens 2016 [86] To explore the perceptions of care experienced by refugees and migrant women of culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds who had participated in a community-based antenatal service specializing in maternity care for multicultural women Australia Community-based antenatal service specializing in maternity care of women from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds Phenomenology I2 mothers Indonesia, Pakistan Vietnam, Iran, Sudan, Burma, Thailand
Interviews
LOT: 1–10 years
Immigrant, refugee
Bhatak, Baloch, Catholic, Muslim, Bari, Chin, Karen
45. Pelaez 2017 [87] To explore health care professionals’ perspectives of challenges newly-arrived migrant women to Canada coming from non-western countries face when needing maternity care in order to better understand clinical practices towards these women Canada Maternity care Multiple case study 3 family physicians, 5 obstetricians, 4 medical residents, 1 nutritionist, 1 anesthesiologist, 7 social workers, 1 art therapist, 1 psychologist, 1 spiritual consultant, and 39 nurses N/A
Interviews
46. Phillimore 2016 [88] To examine the reasons why migrants’ access to antenatal care is poor United Kingdom Antenatal care Mixed-methods (Qualitative descriptive in conjunction with a questionnaire) 82 mothers and 18 community health staff, general practitioners, pregnancy outreach workers, hospital staff and third sector workers 28 countries including China, Iran, Pakistan, Poland, Zimbabwe
LOT: ≤ 5 years
Immigrant, refugee, asylum seeker, undocumented
Questionnaire and interviews
47. Qureshi 2013 [21] To describe the comparative birthing experiences of Pakistani immigrant women in Pakistan and the United States United States Maternity care Ethnography 26 mothers Pakistan
Interviews LOT: average of 12 years
Immigrant
48. Renzaho 2014 [89] To explore the views and perceptions of migrant women in Dandenong, Australia, about sociocultural barriers and health needs during pregnancy and in the postnatal period Australia Pregnancy and postnatal care Qualitative descriptive 35 mothers Afghanistan, Africa, China, Palestine, Lebanon, Syria, Iran, Jordan
Focus groups
LOT: 2 to 11 years
Immigrant
49. Rickmeyer 2015 [90] To present preliminary results from a project that aims to evaluate the FIRST STEPS program, which is an early-childhood parenting support and child development intervention; preliminary results included attendance rates to the program, socio-demographics of the participating population and vignettes to illustrate some of the positive effects for families Germany Early-childhood support program for immigrant parents Randomized control trial (with a qualitative component) 224 mothers Ethiopia, Eritrea, Kenya, Sudan, Benin, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ghana, Nigeria, Mexico, Venezuela, Algeria, Egypt, Morocco, Tunisia, Bulgaria, Poland, Romania, Croatia, Kosovo, Montenegro, Serbia, Turkey, Afghanistan, India, Pakistan, Palestine, Saudi Arabia, Syria, China, Japan, Korea, Vietnam
Questionnaires and vignettes
LOT: ≤ 3 years
Immigrant
50. Riggs 2012 [91] To explore experiences of using maternal and child health services, from the perspective of families from refugee backgrounds and service providers Australia Maternal and child health services Qualitative descriptive 87 mothers and 5 healthcare providers (nurses, other healthcare workers and bicultural workers) Iraq, Burma, Lebanon, Bhutan, Sudan
LOT: 1.5 to 8.5 years
Refugee
Karen, Assyrian Chaldean
Focus groups and interviews
51. Riggs 2017 [92] To describe the experiences of group pregnancy care for Karen women from Burma who have resettled in Melbourne, Australia Australia Group pregnancy care Qualitative descriptive 19 mothers Burma
Focus groups LOT: <  1 year to 10 years
Refugee
Karen
52. Russo 2015 [93] To explore the experiences of Afghan women living in Melbourne throughout pregnancy, birth, and early motherhood, and gain insight into the aspects of their experiences that they perceive as positively and negatively impacting their emotional wellbeing Australia Maternity care Qualitative descriptive 38 mothers Afghanistan
Focus groups and interviews LOT: 1 to 6 years
Refugee
53. Sanchez 2017 [94] To describe Mexican immigrant women experiences of pregnancy and birth and to identify the approaches that midwives use when caring for these women United States Midwifery care Qualitative descriptive 20 mothers and 5 nurse-midwives Mexico
Interviews LOT: 16 were in US < 3 years, others longer
Undocumented, immigrant
54. Schmiedigen 2013 [95] To describe the subjective experience of Brazilian women entering motherhood in the United States United States Maternity care Interpretive phenomenology 8 mothers Brazil
Interviews LOT: ≤ 10 years
Immigrant
55. Seo 2017 [96] To understand Korean immigrant women’s common experiences and practices of utilizing health care services in the United States during childbirth United States Health care services during childbirth Interpretive phenomenology 15 mothers Korea
Interviews LOT: 1.5 years to 19 years
Immigrant
56. Shafiei 2012 [97] To explore immigrant Afghan women’s views and experiences of maternity care in Melbourne, Australia Australia Maternity care Mixed-methods design (survey followed by qualitative interviews) 40 mothers Afghanistan
Questionnaire and Interviews LOT: half were ≤ 5 years, other half > 5 years
Refugee
57. Signorelli 2015 [98] To describe the STARTTerS Early childhood program (a multimodal program that aims to support child development and trauma recovery, and enhance parenting confidence and skills), and to report the results from a community project with Karen and Mandaean refugee communities which aimed to better tailor services for these populations Australia Early childhood program for refugee families Qualitative descriptive 48 male and female participants including parents, grandparents, other care-givers community leaders and other community members Burma, Iraq
LOT: very few were recent arrivals
Refugee
Karen, Mandaean
Focus groups and interviews
58. Signorelli 2017 [99] To explore the implementation of a model to address access and other challenges in early childhood work with refugee families and communities, with the intent to increase service uptake Australia Early childhood program for refugee families Discussion paper
59. Stapleton 2013 [100] To explore whether maternity care for women from refugee backgrounds attending a specialist antenatal clinic in a tertiary Australian public hospital, could be improved Australia Antenatal clinic for refugee women Mixed-methods (retrospective cohort, survey, and qualitative descriptive) 4348 mothers (hospital data), 42 service-users (mothers), 147 hospital staff, 3 clinic staff, 3 hospital managers, 2 interpreting coordinators, and 5 key stakeholders Africa and Middle East including Somalia, Sudan, Afghanistan, Burundi, Liberia
Refugee
Surveys, interviews, focus groups, hospital and clinic databases and chart audit
60. Stewart 2015 [101] To evaluate a social support intervention (support groups consisting of like-ethnic and like-gender peers) for refugee new parents Canada Psychosocial intervention for refugee parents with young children (4 months to 5 years) Mixed-methods (pre-test post-test design and qualitative descriptive) 38 mothers and 47 fathers 21 peer and professional mentors Sudan, Zimbabwe
LOT: <  5 years
Interviews and questionnaires (social support, loneliness and isolation, coping, parenting stress) Refugee, asylum seeker
61. Stewart 2017 [102] To examine support needs of African refugee new parents in Canada to guide development of a tailored support intervention Canada Psychosocial intervention for refugee parents with young children (4 months to 5 years) Mixed-methods (qualitative descriptive and questionnaires) 29 fathers and 43 mothers (additional parents also participated in the group interviews but unclear how many), and 15 service-providers and 15 policy-influences/makers Zimbabwe, Sudan
LOT: <  5 years
Refugee, asylum seeker
Individual and group interviews and questionnaires (social support, coping)
62. Stewart 2018 [103] To develop and test an accessible and culturally appropriate social support intervention designed to meet the support needs and preferences identified by African refugee parents of young children Canada Social support intervention for refugee parents with young children (4 months to 5 years) Qualitative descriptive 47 fathers and 38 mothers Sudan, Zimbabwe
Individual and group interviews LOT: <  5 years
Refugee
63. Tobin 2014 [104] To explore midwives’ perceptions and experiences of providing care to women in the asylum process and to gain insight into how midwives can be equipped and supported to provide more effective care to this group in the future Ireland Maternity care Qualitative descriptive 10 midwives N/A
Interviews
64. Vesely 2011 [105] To gain greater understanding of the lived experiences of immigrant mothers of young children as they parented in the U.S. and interacted with the Early childhood care and education system United States Early childhood care and education mothers Ethnographic and grounded theory approaches 41 mothers, 4 fathers Ethiopia, El Salvador, Eritrea, Sudan, Ghana, Mexico, Ecuador, Egypt, Guatemala, Morocco, Somalia, Ghana, Argentina
Interviews and observations
LOT: 2 to 21 years
Refugee, undocumented, immigrant
65. Wikberg 2012 [106] To describe and interpret from an intercultural perspective, the perceptions and experiences of immigrant new mothers in maternity care in Finland Finland Maternity care Focused ethnography 17 mothers Australia, Bosnia, Burma, Colombia, Estonia, Hungary, India, Iraq, Russia, Thailand, Uganda, Vietnam
Interviews, observations, and documents (information given to mothers, newspapers, websites and informal notes)
LOT: <  1 year to 10 years
Refugee, immigrant, family sponsored, asylum seeker
Kurdish
66. Wikberg 2014 [107] To illuminate immigrant new mothers’ experiences and perceptions of caring in maternity services in Finland Finland Maternity care Focused ethnography 17 mothers Australia, Bosnia, Burma, Colombia, Estonia, Hungary, India, Iraq, Russia, Thailand, Uganda, Vietnam
Interviews, observations, and documents (information given to mothers, newspapers, websites and informal notes)
LOT: <  1 year to 10 years
Refugee, immigrant, family sponsored, asylum seeker
Kurdish
67. Willey 2018 [108] To explore service provision for Victorian regional refugee families from the perspective of maternal and child health nurses Australia Maternal and child primary healthcare Qualitative descriptive 26 maternal and child health nurses N/A
Focus groups, questionnaire
68. Wojnar 2015 [109] To explore the perspective of Somali couples on care and support received during the perinatal period in the United States United States Perinatal healthcare Descriptive phenomenology 26 mothers and 22 fathers Somalia
Interviews LOT: ≤ 5 years
Refugee
69. Yelland 2014 [110] To explore the responsiveness of health services to the social and mental health of Afghan women and men at time of having a baby Australia Maternity and early childhood services Qualitative descriptive 16 mothers and 14 fathers 34 health professionals (midwives, general practitioners, refugee health nurses, maternal and child health nurses, obstetricians, community bicultural workers and other healthcare personnel) Afghanistan
LOT: <  1 year to ≥6 years
Refugee
Hazera, Tajik, Pashtu, Afghan, Sadath
Interviews and focus groups
  1. For qualitative research in cases where the methodology was not explicitly named or it was unclear, we applied a label based on the description provided. General ‘qualitative’ exploratory studies were categorized as ‘qualitative descriptive’
  2. The description of migrants is based on what was provided in the paper (country of origin, length of time (LOT*) in country, immigration status, and/or ethnicity); Often ‘immigrant’ is used to generally refer to anyone foreign-born without specifying which immigration statuses are included