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Table 4 Multiple logistic regression of ever having an eye examination and related factors by sex

From: Eye care utilization pattern in South Africa: results from SANHANES-1

  Males Females
OR 95% CI (OR) p-value OR 95% CI (OR) p-value
Predisposing factors
 Age group
  15–29 ref ref
  30–44 2.05 [1.19–3.51] 0.009 1.59 [1.09–2.31] 0.016
  45–59 1.68 [0.97–2.91] 0.066 2.52 [1.64–3.86] < 0.001
  60–74 1.94 [1.07–3.53] 0.030 3.36 [1.94–5.83] < 0.001
  > =75 2.98 [1.06–8.4] 0.039 3.58 [1.78–7.18] < 0.001
 Ethnicity
  African ref ref
  White 8.18 [1.87–35.77] 0.005 3.79 [1.4–10.27] 0.009
  Coloured’ (mixed race) 2.38 [1.51–3.75] < 0.001 1.76 [1.15–2.69] 0.009
  Indian 12.00 [4.12–34.94] < 0.001 6.77 [2.77–16.57] < 0.001
 High risk alcohol use 2.37 [1.45–3.88] 0.001 1.39 [0.84–2.3] 0.196
 Current smoking 0.87 [0.56–1.36] 0.544 0.71 [0.45–1.12] 0.139
Enabling factors
 Wealth index
  Lowest (1) ref ref
  2 0.97 [0.53–1.79] 0.924 0.89 [0.58–1.38] 0.613
  3 2.62 [1.41–4.86] 0.002 1.43 [0.83–2.48] 0.197
  4 1.54 [0.83–2.85] 0.168 2.54 [1.56–4.14] < 0.001
  Wealthiest (5) 1.79 [0.78–4.12] 0.170 2.75 [1.41–5.34] 0.003
 Urban residence 0.86 [0.55–1.35] 0.504 1.32 [0.9–1.93] 0.156
 Has health insurance 4.20 [2.13–8.26] < 0.001 1.66 [1.07–2.57] 0.024
Need factors
 Hypertension 1.04 [0.69–1.58] 0.847 1.02 [0.71–1.47] 0.899
 Diabetes 3.14 [1.39–7.08] 0.006 1.48 [0.92–2.39] 0.106
 High cholesterol 2.91 [1.03–8.24] 0.045 2.33 [1.34–4.07] 0.003
 Cardiovascular disease 1.22 [0.59–2.53] 0.597 1.31 [0.86–2.01] 0.211
 Accessed health care in past 5 years 2.91 [1.95–4.36] < 0.001 2.23 [1.7–2.93] < 0.001
 Clinician assessed vision loss 1.78 [0.91–3.48] 0.092 0.90 [0.55–1.46] 0.658
 Self-reported vision problems 1.34 [0.76–2.36] 0.308 1.63 [1.08–2.44] 0.019
  1. OR Odds ratio, CI confidence interval, n number of participants, ref reference group