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Table 4 Multiple logistic regression of ever having an eye examination and related factors by sex

From: Eye care utilization pattern in South Africa: results from SANHANES-1

 

Males

Females

OR

95% CI (OR)

p-value

OR

95% CI (OR)

p-value

Predisposing factors

 Age group

  15–29

ref

ref

  30–44

2.05

[1.19–3.51]

0.009

1.59

[1.09–2.31]

0.016

  45–59

1.68

[0.97–2.91]

0.066

2.52

[1.64–3.86]

< 0.001

  60–74

1.94

[1.07–3.53]

0.030

3.36

[1.94–5.83]

< 0.001

  > =75

2.98

[1.06–8.4]

0.039

3.58

[1.78–7.18]

< 0.001

 Ethnicity

  African

ref

ref

  White

8.18

[1.87–35.77]

0.005

3.79

[1.4–10.27]

0.009

  Coloured’ (mixed race)

2.38

[1.51–3.75]

< 0.001

1.76

[1.15–2.69]

0.009

  Indian

12.00

[4.12–34.94]

< 0.001

6.77

[2.77–16.57]

< 0.001

 High risk alcohol use

2.37

[1.45–3.88]

0.001

1.39

[0.84–2.3]

0.196

 Current smoking

0.87

[0.56–1.36]

0.544

0.71

[0.45–1.12]

0.139

Enabling factors

 Wealth index

  Lowest (1)

ref

ref

  2

0.97

[0.53–1.79]

0.924

0.89

[0.58–1.38]

0.613

  3

2.62

[1.41–4.86]

0.002

1.43

[0.83–2.48]

0.197

  4

1.54

[0.83–2.85]

0.168

2.54

[1.56–4.14]

< 0.001

  Wealthiest (5)

1.79

[0.78–4.12]

0.170

2.75

[1.41–5.34]

0.003

 Urban residence

0.86

[0.55–1.35]

0.504

1.32

[0.9–1.93]

0.156

 Has health insurance

4.20

[2.13–8.26]

< 0.001

1.66

[1.07–2.57]

0.024

Need factors

 Hypertension

1.04

[0.69–1.58]

0.847

1.02

[0.71–1.47]

0.899

 Diabetes

3.14

[1.39–7.08]

0.006

1.48

[0.92–2.39]

0.106

 High cholesterol

2.91

[1.03–8.24]

0.045

2.33

[1.34–4.07]

0.003

 Cardiovascular disease

1.22

[0.59–2.53]

0.597

1.31

[0.86–2.01]

0.211

 Accessed health care in past 5 years

2.91

[1.95–4.36]

< 0.001

2.23

[1.7–2.93]

< 0.001

 Clinician assessed vision loss

1.78

[0.91–3.48]

0.092

0.90

[0.55–1.46]

0.658

 Self-reported vision problems

1.34

[0.76–2.36]

0.308

1.63

[1.08–2.44]

0.019

  1. OR Odds ratio, CI confidence interval, n number of participants, ref reference group