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Table 3 Multiple logistic regression of ever having an eye examination and related factors

From: Eye care utilization pattern in South Africa: results from SANHANES-1

 

Model 1

Model 2

Model 3

OR

95% CI (OR)

p-value

OR

95% CI (OR)

p-value

OR

95% CI (OR)

p-value

Predisposing factors

 Age group

  15–29

Ref

ref

ref

  30–44

1.85

[1.36–2.51]

< 0.001

1.80

[1.3–2.5]

< 0.001

1.76

[1.27–2.43]

0.001

  45–59

3.04

[2.24–4.13]

< 0.001

2.86

[2.09–3.91]

< 0.001

2.13

[1.47–3.07]

< 0.001

  60–74

3.59

[2.49–5.18]

< 0.001

4.04

[2.8–5.85]

< 0.001

2.74

[1.81–4.14]

< 0.001

  > =75

4.28

[2.61–7.02]

< 0.001

5.01

[3.09–8.12]

< 0.001

3.22

[1.82–5.7]

< 0.001

 Sex

  Male

Ref

ref

ref

  Female

0.89

[0.7–1.14]

0.370

0.89

[0.69–1.14]

0.349

0.80

[0.61–1.04]

0.090

 Ethnicity

  African

Ref

ref

ref

  White

12.76

[5.28–30.84]

< 0.001

4.37

[1.73–11.05]

0.002

4.71

[1.8–12.36]

0.002

  Coloured’ (mixed race)

2.61

[1.84–3.7]

< 0.001

1.97

[1.38–2.82]

< 0.001

1.87

[1.32–2.65]

< 0.001

  Indian

10.94

[5.97–20.03]

< 0.001

8.65

[3.39–22.05]

< 0.001

7.67

[3.17–18.53]

< 0.001

 High risk alcohol use

2.05

[1.44–2.92]

< 0.001

1.84

[1.32–2.55]

< 0.001

1.83

[1.3–2.56]

0.001

 Current smoking

0.76

[0.53–1.09]

0.134

0.88

[0.63–1.24]

0.478

0.82

[0.59–1.15]

0.253

Enabling factors

 Wealth index

  Lowest (1)

   

ref

ref

  2

   

0.96

[0.67–1.4]

0.845

0.93

[0.63–1.38]

0.716

  3

   

1.74

[1.11–2.71]

0.015

1.75

[1.11–2.76]

0.017

  4

   

2.24

[1.49–3.39]

< 0.001

2.23

[1.49–3.36]

< 0.001

  Wealthiest (5)

   

2.50

[1.41–4.45]

0.002

2.49

[1.38–4.48]

0.003

 Urban residence

   

1.17

[0.85–1.62]

0.325

1.10

[0.8–1.51]

0.558

 Has health insurance

   

2.27

[1.49–3.45]

< 0.001

2.19

[1.44–3.33]

< 0.001

Need factors

 Hypertension

      

1.06

[0.8–1.39]

0.696

 Diabetes

      

1.75

[1.15–2.66]

0.009

 High cholesterol

      

2.51

[1.44–4.38]

0.001

 Cardiovascular disease

      

1.27

[0.88–1.83]

0.209

 Accessed health care in the past 5 years

      

2.42

[1.91–3.07]

< 0.001

 Clinician assessed vision loss

      

1.14

[0.78–1.67]

0.506

 Self-reported vision problems

      

1.51

[1.05–2.16]

0.026

  1. Model 1 included predisposing variables as a univariate model; Model 2 included predisposing and enabling variables; Model 3 included predisposing, enabling, and need variables
  2. OR Odds ratio, CI confidence interval, n number of participants, ref reference group