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Table 3 Multiple logistic regression of ever having an eye examination and related factors

From: Eye care utilization pattern in South Africa: results from SANHANES-1

  Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
OR 95% CI (OR) p-value OR 95% CI (OR) p-value OR 95% CI (OR) p-value
Predisposing factors
 Age group
  15–29 Ref ref ref
  30–44 1.85 [1.36–2.51] < 0.001 1.80 [1.3–2.5] < 0.001 1.76 [1.27–2.43] 0.001
  45–59 3.04 [2.24–4.13] < 0.001 2.86 [2.09–3.91] < 0.001 2.13 [1.47–3.07] < 0.001
  60–74 3.59 [2.49–5.18] < 0.001 4.04 [2.8–5.85] < 0.001 2.74 [1.81–4.14] < 0.001
  > =75 4.28 [2.61–7.02] < 0.001 5.01 [3.09–8.12] < 0.001 3.22 [1.82–5.7] < 0.001
 Sex
  Male Ref ref ref
  Female 0.89 [0.7–1.14] 0.370 0.89 [0.69–1.14] 0.349 0.80 [0.61–1.04] 0.090
 Ethnicity
  African Ref ref ref
  White 12.76 [5.28–30.84] < 0.001 4.37 [1.73–11.05] 0.002 4.71 [1.8–12.36] 0.002
  Coloured’ (mixed race) 2.61 [1.84–3.7] < 0.001 1.97 [1.38–2.82] < 0.001 1.87 [1.32–2.65] < 0.001
  Indian 10.94 [5.97–20.03] < 0.001 8.65 [3.39–22.05] < 0.001 7.67 [3.17–18.53] < 0.001
 High risk alcohol use 2.05 [1.44–2.92] < 0.001 1.84 [1.32–2.55] < 0.001 1.83 [1.3–2.56] 0.001
 Current smoking 0.76 [0.53–1.09] 0.134 0.88 [0.63–1.24] 0.478 0.82 [0.59–1.15] 0.253
Enabling factors
 Wealth index
  Lowest (1)     ref ref
  2     0.96 [0.67–1.4] 0.845 0.93 [0.63–1.38] 0.716
  3     1.74 [1.11–2.71] 0.015 1.75 [1.11–2.76] 0.017
  4     2.24 [1.49–3.39] < 0.001 2.23 [1.49–3.36] < 0.001
  Wealthiest (5)     2.50 [1.41–4.45] 0.002 2.49 [1.38–4.48] 0.003
 Urban residence     1.17 [0.85–1.62] 0.325 1.10 [0.8–1.51] 0.558
 Has health insurance     2.27 [1.49–3.45] < 0.001 2.19 [1.44–3.33] < 0.001
Need factors
 Hypertension        1.06 [0.8–1.39] 0.696
 Diabetes        1.75 [1.15–2.66] 0.009
 High cholesterol        2.51 [1.44–4.38] 0.001
 Cardiovascular disease        1.27 [0.88–1.83] 0.209
 Accessed health care in the past 5 years        2.42 [1.91–3.07] < 0.001
 Clinician assessed vision loss        1.14 [0.78–1.67] 0.506
 Self-reported vision problems        1.51 [1.05–2.16] 0.026
  1. Model 1 included predisposing variables as a univariate model; Model 2 included predisposing and enabling variables; Model 3 included predisposing, enabling, and need variables
  2. OR Odds ratio, CI confidence interval, n number of participants, ref reference group