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Table 2 Years since last eye examination

From: Eye care utilization pattern in South Africa: results from SANHANES-1

  <=2 years 3–5 years > 5 years Never had an eye examination  
% 95% CI % 95% CI % 95% CI % 95% CI N
Total 17.8 [15.0–20.9] 5.1 [4.2–6.2] 3.8 [2.9–4.8] 73.4 [69.7–76.7] 3320
Predisposing factors
 Age (years)
  15–29 10.2 [7.7–13.5] 2.8 [1.8–4.5] 3.0 [2.0–4.6] 83.9 [79.8–87.3] 1227
  30–44 15.9 [12.5–20.1] 5.8 [4.1–8.2] 4.2 [2.7–6.4] 74.0 [69.1–78.4] 783
  45–59 25.9 [21.0–31.3] 6.9 [4.9–9.6] 3.6 [2.1–6.3] 63.7 [57.5–69.4] 767
  60–74 30.7 [22.4–40.5] 8.2 [5.6–11.9] 5.3 [2.9–9.3] 55.8 [46.7–64.6] 430
  > =75 33.6 [21.4–48.5] 5.7 [2.6–11.9] 5.1 [2.3–11.3] 55.6 [42.4–68.0] 112
 Sex
  Males 19.8 [16.0–24.3] 5.4 [4.0–7.2] 4.1 [2.8–6.0] 70.6 [65.4–75.4] 1165
  Females 16.5 [13.6–19.8] 4.9 [3.8–6.3] 3.5 [2.7–4.7] 75.1 [71.6–78.3] 2154
 Ethnicity
  African 14.0 [11.4–17.2] 3.9 [3.1–5.0] 3.3 [2.4–4.5] 78.7 [74.9–82.1] 2340
  White 66.7 [48.7–80.8] 7.2 [2.9–17.0] 9.1 [4.0–19.2] 17.0 [7.8–33.1] 69
  Coloured’ (mixed race) 23.8 [19.2–29.1] 11.8 [9.3–14.9] 5.0 [3.5–7.1] 59.4 [53.6–64.9] 751
  Indian 45.6 [34.2–57.4] 19.7 [8.5–39.4] 6.1 [2.3–15.2] 28.7 [21.2–37.5] 159
 High-risk alcohol use
  Low risk (1–3 for men and 1–2 for women) 15.8 [13.2–18.8] 4.9 [3.9–6.1] 3.1 [2.4–4.1] 76.2 [72.8–79.2] 2698
  High risk (> = 4 for men and > =3 for women) 26.0 [20.7–32.2] 6.0 [4.1–8.7] 6.7 [4.5–9.8] 61.4 [54.1–68.2] 621
 Current smoker
  No 17.3 [14.2–20.8] 4.6 [3.7–5.8] 3.5 [2.6–4.6] 74.6 [70.8–78.1] 2662
  Yes 20.1 [15.5–25.7] 7.7 [5.4–10.7] 5.2 [3.2–8.3] 67.1 [61.1–72.5] 657
Enabling factors
 Wealth index
  Lowest (1) 8.7 [6.6–11.4] 4.1 [2.7–6.3] 2.2 [1.2–3.8] 85.0 [81.5–87.9] 793
  2 9.1 [6.8–12.0] 3.3 [1.8–5.9] 3.0 [1.8–5.0] 84.7 [81.0–87.7] 756
  3 13.5 [10.3–17.6] 6.4 [4.5–9.1] 5.8 [3.6–9.1] 74.3 [67.8–79.8] 771
  4 27.0 [21.8–32.8] 6.0 [4.2–8.6] 3.7 [2.3–5.9] 63.3 [57.0–69.2] 604
  Wealthiest (5) 46.0 [35.5–56.8] 6.9 [4.3–10.7] 4.9 [2.6–9.1] 42.2 [32.0–53.2] 395
 Residence
  Rural 12.1 [10.2–14.4] 4.2 [3.1–5.8] 2.5 [1.7–3.7] 81.1 [77.9–83.9] 1335
  Urban 22.5 [17.8–28.0] 5.8 [4.6–7.4] 4.8 [3.5–6.5] 66.9 [60.9–72.4] 1984
 Has health insurance
  No 12.6 [10.9–14.6] 5.1 [4.2–6.3] 3.6 [2.7–4.7] 78.7 [75.8–81.3] 2893
  Yes 47.9 [38.8–57.1] 4.9 [3.2–7.4] 4.9 [2.8–8.3] 42.4 [33.7–51.6] 426
Need factors
 Hypertension
  No 14.0 [11.4–17.2] 4.4 [3.4–5.7] 3.5 [2.5–4.9] 78.1 [74.5–81.3] 2126
  Yes 25.6 [21.1–30.8] 6.5 [4.9–8.6] 4.4 [3.0–6.5] 63.4 [58.0–68.5] 1193
 Self-reported diagnosis of Diabetes
  No 16.3 [13.5–19.4] 4.9 [4.0–6.1] 3.7 [2.9–4.9] 75.1 [71.4–78.4] 3070
  Yes 39.1 [30.2–48.8] 7.6 [4.7–12.0] 4.2 [1.9–8.8] 49.1 [40.0–58.2] 249
 High cholesterol - self-reported
  No 16.6 [14.0–19.6] 4.6 [3.8–5.6] 3.5 [2.7–4.6] 75.3 [71.8–78.4] 3170
  Yes 43.3 [30.0–57.6] 15.1 [8.6–25.1] 9.8 [4.8–19.2] 31.8 [21.1–44.8] 149
 Cardiovascular disease
  No 17.5 [14.7–20.7] 5.0 [4.1–6.1] 3.4 [2.6–4.5] 74.0 [70.3–77.4] 3074
  Yes 20.5 [13.9–29.2] 6.2 [3.6–10.5] 7.8 [4.3–13.7] 65.5 [56.6–73.3] 245
 Accessed health care in the past 5 years
  No 12.8 [10.3–15.8] 2.4 [1.6–3.6] 3.0 [2.1–4.3] 81.8 [78.2–84.9] 1756
  Yes 23.4 [19.6–27.8] 8.1 [6.6–9.9] 4.7 [3.4–6.4] 63.8 [59.2–68.2] 1563
 Clinician assessed vision loss
  No 16.3 [13.3–19.8] 4.9 [4.0–6.0] 3.8 [3.0–5.0] 75.0 [71.0–78.6] 2936
  Yes 30.3 [24.4–36.9] 6.8 [4.3–10.7] 3.2 [1.7–5.9] 59.7 [53.6–65.5] 383
 Self-reported vision problems
  No 16.2 [13.1–19.8] 4.1 [3.3–5.2] 3.8 [2.9–5.1] 75.9 [71.8–79.5] 2664
  Yes 25.0 [20.8–29.8] 9.5 [6.9–13.0] 3.5 [2.2–5.5] 62.0 [56.3–67.4] 655