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Table 1 Description of the sample

From: Eye care utilization pattern in South Africa: results from SANHANES-1

  Total
(N = 3320)
Male (N = 1165, 35.1%) Female (N = 2155, 64.9%)  
% (frequency) % (frequency) % (frequency) p-value for linearity
Predisposing factors
 Age (mean, std. dev.) 39.8(18.1) 39.4(18.2) 40(18) 0.367
 Age group (years)
  15–29 37(1228) 38.2(445) 36.3(783) 0.015
  30–44 23.6(783) 20.8(242) 25.1(541)  
  45–59 23.1(767) 24.9(290) 22.1(477)  
  60–74 13(430) 13.5(157) 12.7(273)  
  > =75 3.4(112) 2.7(31) 3.8(81)  
 Ethnicity
  African 70.5(2341) 68.8(802) 71.4(1539) 0.027
  White 2.1(69) 2.9(34) 1.6(35)  
  Coloured’ (mixed race) 22.6(751) 22.7(264) 22.6(487)  
  Indian 4.8(159) 5.6(65) 4.4(94)  
 High risk alcohol use 18.7(621) 29.8(347) 12.7(274) < 0.001
 Current smoker 19.8(657) 32.8(382) 12.8(275) < 0.001
Enabling factors
 Wealth index
  Lowest (1) 23.9(793) 25.2(293) 23.2(500) 0.001
  2 22.8(757) 21.4(249) 23.6(508)  
  3 23.2(771) 20.9(243) 24.5(528)  
  4 18.2(604) 17.9(208) 18.4(396)  
  Wealthiest (5) 11.9(395) 14.8(172) 10.3(223)  
 Residence
  Rural 40.2(1336) 41.2(480) 39.7(856) 0.407
  Urban 59.8(1984) 58.8(685) 60.3(1299)  
 Has health insurance 12.9(427) 13.1(153) 12.7(274) 0.731
Need factors
 Hypertension 35.9(1193) 36.1(421) 35.8(772) 0.857
 Diabetes 7.5(249) 7(81) 7.8(168) 0.379
 High cholesterol 4.5(149) 4.4(51) 4.5(98) 0.821
 Cardiovascular disease 7.4(245) 6.4(75) 7.9(170) 0.127
 Accessed health care in past 5 years 47.1(1563) 43.7(509) 48.9(1054) 0.004
 Clinician assessed vision loss 11.5(383) 10.6(123) 12.1(260) 0.195
 Self-reported vision problems 19.7(655) 17.2(200) 21.1(455) 0.006