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Table 2 Policy options of the final model for malnutrition prevention among children under 5 years old in Iran

From: Developing a model for prevention of malnutrition among children under 5 years old

Dimensions Policy Options
Structural Strengthening the activates of the Supreme Council for health and Children Nutrition through structural reform
Making the ministry of health to operate the leadership completely as a policymaker and chief responsible for the children nutrition
Strengthening the staff structure to improve the community nutrition at the health deputy of Health Ministry
Strengthening the line structure in executive agencies of the cities, such as health networks and nutrition experts for more coordination
Strengthening the capacity of the PHC system to solve the nutritional problems of mothers and children
Establishing the community-based structures in the processes of food security level promotion at the Ministry of Health
Increasing the public participation in implementing operational programs through participation in the executive body
Using more expert personnel in the field of production, processing and food health
Intersectoral More coordination for nutrition-related policies in beneficiary organizations
Using the graduates of management and policy making in the field of nutrition
Increasing the linkages between research centers and the institutions of policy making and decision making
Strengthening the effective participation of the scientific community to implement the programs of children nutrition
Strengthening the effective participation of private sector to implement the programs of children nutrition
Making the related organizations such as TV, Ministry of Culture and NGOs more sensitive to the topic of children nutrition
Implementing the approved health plans with more commitment by beneficiary organizations
Political Increasing the share of food and nutrition in macro policy makings of the health sector
Activating the committees of supreme council for health more to run the existing laws better
Paying more attention to evidence-based policy making on policies of children nutrition in related organizations
Decentralized regional policy making for more adaptation to the different regions of the country
Proper implementation of some nutrition laws that are not properly implemented, such as National Document of Nutrition and Food Security
Formulating the comprehensive planning for production, consumption and demand with the participation of all organizations involved in this field
Prohibiting radio, television and other mass media from advertising heath threatening food products
Putting taxes on health threatening food products
Economic Absorbing the financial resources completely by the organizations, which have a credit for the children nutrition.
Receiving more financial resources from international organizations which are active in the field of nutrition and poverty
Reforming the laws and programs related social justice to balance the distribution of per capita income in the country and the improve the poor condition
Identifying the groups under the poverty line complete and being committed to support their nutrition fully
Employment and income generation for unemployed, young, low-income and poor people through formal plans
Making food subsidies purposeful based on differences in economic conditions of different regions
Making production subsidies purposeful and applying as well as modifying the price tools
Increasing the credit of per capita for a hot meal in rural kindergartens
Supporting micro-industries, particularly in agriculture and food to increase rural finance capacity
Supporting rural development projects to improve the economic conditions of the village and its residents
Providing facilities and subsidies to private sector to invest in producing healthy food products
Providing a milk subsidy appropriate with desired food basket to increase the per capita consumption of milk and its products
Financial support for educational programs, and advertisements related to health and nutrition of mother and child health in TV
Sanitary Reducing agricultural crops by monitoring the responsible organizations and continuous evaluation of products
Removing unauthorized additives in the processing and maintaining of food
Supporting the projects of food safety promotion at industrial units
Paying special attention to the elimination of health problems in deprived areas with insecure food
Teaching families about the principles of food hygiene in providing and maintaining child food
Teaching families on hygiene (hand wash, sanitary waste and ...)
Teaching families on parasitic diseases and their transfer and cure
اIncreasing public health measures to prevent intestinal parasitic infection among children
Training to reduce the consumption of unhealthy and low value food by children through media, health and educational centers
Health oriented More access to health care, especially in areas with poor economic status
Complete children health care, especially in the first 1000 days of life
The possibility of children’s access to foods full of micronutrient in all regions of the country
Facilitating the access to fresh and natural food, especially fruits and vegetables for mothers and children
Identification of nutritious and proper native food to feed children and develop the culture of its supply and consumption
Emphasis on the proper various dietary for mother and the child and to receive the nutrients they need
Complete implementation of breastfeeding programs, especially during the first six months
Complete implementation of complementary nutrition programs after the first six months
Supporting the promotion of breastfeeding and proper supplemental nutrition with appropriate training and incentives.
Preventing from the reduction of the quantity and quality of the food basket due to poverty, inflation and food prices
Preparation of desired food baskets in accordance with culture, tradition and the status of different regions
Providing comprehensive nutrition program to deal with micronutrients deficiency, especially Vitamin A, D, Iron, and Zinc
Changing the composition of supply pattern to reduce the consumption of salt, oil and sugar
Strengthening family planning and proper birth spacing
Focus on mother’s nutrition prior to pregnancy
The mother and child nutritional treatment system at the Ministry of Health, especially in hospitals and private clinics
Establishing and strengthening of the nutritional counseling units in health centers
Establishing and strengthening of intensive care unit for children with severe malnutrition in all hospitals
Supportive measures to the cure the children having diseases due to malnutrition
Encouraging and supporting the production and consumption of nutritional supplements among susceptible and sick children and mothers
Strengthening the children’s growth monitoring program at community health centers
Strengthening the supplemental programs of micro-nutrition for children emphasizing on family education
Research Development of research capacities and interdisciplinary specialties in universities
Studying on applied researches related to children’s nutrition problems
Studying on enriching major nutrient with a variety of micronutrients more powerful
Research studies on the causes of malnutrition in different regions of the country
Use of research findings from other countries to address the causes and problems of child nutrition
Educational/Cultural Acceleration of absolute illiteracy reduction, especially in deprived regions faster
More use of new promotional tools such as social networks for proper advertisements and training on health related topics
Promoting the nutritional culture and literacy through the huge potential of social media
Proper implementation of nutritional labeling system to aware consumers
Increasing the knowledge and skills of general practitioners as the first level of nutrition care in the community
Training and retraining of health workers in the field of family proper nutrition, especially mother and child
Training and retraining of health care staff, especially nurses in pregnancy and pediatrics departments
Teaching mothers and girls, especially high school girls, about mother and child nutrition
University educations on proper food and nutrition based on community needs
Cultivation to limit the production and consumption of low-value and harmful food
Cultivation and promotion of using vegetables and fruits based on the desired food basket
Use of cultural and traditional tools of communities to educate and promote the nutritional literacy
Presenting food and nutrition education for personnel (at the beginning, during or work retraining)
Including food and nutrition in different steps of reviewing and editing textbooks
Public education about the nutritional value of milk and its products to increase its per capita consumption
Planning and implementing the comprehensive nutritional education program for mothers
Informing parents about nutritional, supplement and labeling standards which are proper for the children
Enhancing the empowerment and participation of people in implementing the programs related to removing children malnutrition and appropriate nutrition
Evaluation Exact evaluation of the nutrition activities for children and presenting report to the supreme Council for Health
Launching the monitoring system of micronutrient and the nutritional status for children and pregnant mothers in health centers
Continuous monitoring of food and nutrition status through electronic registration systems
Continuous monitoring of educational and promotional food related to nutrition programs, especially in the mass media
Strengthening the monitoring and control system on the import of food and raw materials in the food industry
Strengthening the monitoring system of diseases caused by food among children
Update and standardize the growth monitoring system to measure the anthropometric status of children
Production Paying attention to the production of food products which support the health of children by producers and supervisory organizations
Paying more attention to quality rather than only the quantity in agricultural and food products
Reducing food waste based on general education and culture making
Formulating and revising the standards of food, raw materials and packaging standards
Reducing the production costs and food prices
Supporting the development of service centers in the agriculture and food industries
Supporting the business development projects in small-scale food industries by the Ministry of Industry
Reducing the excessive use of chemical pesticides and supporting the biological methods to control pests
Promotion of planting vegetables and consuming them, especially in rural regions
Organizing and optimizing the traditional production units of milk and its products
Supporting the production of organic foods
Supporting the production of probiotic foods
infrastructures Development of infrastructures such as health network, transportation and communications to have access to more food, health services and health facilities.
Technology developing in the specialty fields of food and nutrition and adaptation to advanced technologies
Promoting the level of technology in the food chain, from production to consumption
Strengthening and equipping food labs in provincial health centers to control the quality of food products
Legal Providing the comprehensive national document for nutrition in the country
Enforcing the observatory laws on the quality and health of foods
Development and continuation of the national program for the enriching the flour with iron and folic acid
Complete implementation of the laws which prohibit the promotion of harmful food
Developing and enforcing the laws which protect of high-quality food producers