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Table 3 Direction of effects of the association between long-term care setting and medical specialist utilization

From: Claims data analysis of medical specialist utilization among nursing home residents and community-dwelling older people

Medical specialty Nursing home residents Home care recipients Given at least one diagnosis from the following disease categories
Reference group: Older people without need of long-term care
No visit Number of visits No visit Number of visits
Internal medicine + + + Arthropathy, coronary disease, diabetes mellitus, heart disease, hypertension, mono- and polyneuropathy, metabolic disorders
+ + o Cerebrovascular disease, respiratory disease
+ o + + Nutrition-related disease, intestinal disease, renal failure, thyroid disorders
+ o + o Palsy/paresis, Parkinson’s disease
+   +   Motor impairmenta
Cardiology + + o Coronary disease, heart disease, hypertension
Ophthalmology + o + + Diseases of the eye
Orthopedics + + Arthropathy, osteopathy and chondropathy, spinal disease
+   +   Motor impairmenta
+ o + o Injury
Gynecology + o + o Urinary tract disease, disorders of female genital tract
Urology + o + o Urinary tract disease
o o + o Prostate disease
Surgery o o o o Skin disease, injury
Dermatology + o + o Bedsore/decubitus
o o + o Skin disease
Otolaryngology o + + Diseases of the ear
Nephrology + o o + Renal failure
Pneumology + o + o Respiratory disease
Psychiatry /Neurology + + Dementia-related disease
o + + Depression
+ o + Palsy/paresis, Parkinson’s disease, cerebrovascular disease
+ o o Neuroses, mental disorders and disorders due to psychoactive substance use, delusional/personality disorders
+ + + Mono- and polyneuropathy
  1. Alpha level: SE Standard error, control variables in the model: mortality, gender and age (in groups), general practitioner visits, residential density; pseudo R2 ranges from 0.015 (otolaryngology utilization given an eye disease) to 0.208 (orthopedist utilization given motor impairment); nursing home residents n = 9700, home care recipients = 5100
  2. autilization of orthopedics and internal medicine in case of diagnosed motor impairment was assessed by logistic regression not by zero-inflated Poisson
  3. + indicates higher probability of no visit/higher number of visits than reference group
  4. - indicates lower probability of no visit/higher number of visits than reference group
  5. o indicates no significant difference compared with reference group