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Table 2 Hierarchical mixed-effects logistic regression model odds ratios of at least four ANC visit among women in the reproductive age (15–49 years) who had at least a live birth, 5 years preceding the 2014 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey

From: Determinants of subnational disparities in antenatal care utilisation: a spatial analysis of demographic and health survey data in Kenya

Covariate Categories Odds Ratio
(95% CI)
P-value
Age at First Marriage/ cohabitation < 18 Ref
≥18 1.07 (0.97–1.18) 0.199
Place of Delivery Health Facility Ref
Non- health Facility 0.54 (0.48–0.61) < 0.0001
Maternal Education No Education Ref
Primary 1.07 (0.89–1.30) 0.463
Secondary 1.33 (1.06–1.67) 0.015
Tertiary 3.00 (2.29–3.93) 0.0001
Birth Order ≤4 Ref
≥5 0.88 (0.78–0.99) 0.027
Marital Status Married Ref
Never Married/ Divorced/ Widowed /Separated 0.83 (0.75–0.93) 0.001
Wealth Quintile Lowest Ref
Second 1.19 (1.04–1.36) 0.013
Middle 1.34 (1.14–1.58) < 0.0001
Fourth 1.45 (1.22–1.72) < 0.0001
Highest 2.06 (1.60–2.65) < 0.0001
Random Effect   Variance Std. error
County   0.20 (0.11–0.36) 0.0611
Intra class correlation coefficient (ICC) 0.09 (0.06–0.13)