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Table 3 Demographic details from included papers

From: Factors that influence family and parental preferences and decision making for unscheduled paediatric healthcare – systematic review

Author & Date Sample Size Age & Gender of Caregivers Relationship to Child Age of Paediatric Population Socioeconomic Factors Specific disease group or condition (if any)
Albrecht et al., 2017 [28] 15 21–30 yrs. (20%), 31-40 yrs. (73%), 41–50 yrs. (7%);
80% female
Parent/caregiver <  1 yrs.: 27%, 1–2 yrs.: 53%, 3–5 yrs.: 13%, > 5 yrs.: 7% Highest level of education: Less than high school: (14%), High school diploma: (14%), Post-secondary certificate/diploma: (20%), Post-secondary degree (20%), Graduate degree (33%); Average household income: Under $25,000 (20%), $25,000–$49,000 (20%), $50,000–$74,999 (13%), $75,000–$99,999 (27%), $100,000–$149,999 (27%) Vomiting & diarrhea
Augustine et al., 2016 [29] 13 Not reported Parent/caregiver Not reported Not reported Return visits
Bartlett et al., 2001 [30] 140 Mean = 33.3 yrs. (SD 6.7);
100% female
Mothers Mean: 7.9 yrs. (SD 2.2) 70% completed high school or obtained a General Education Development certificate and reported having state-sponsored medical assistance (56%) or private health care insurance (36%). Asthma
Benahmed et al., 2012 [31] 3117 Not reported Parent/caregiver Mean: 3.3 yrs 16.7% were considered disadvantaged Non-urgent
Bernthal et al., 2017 [32] 31 Not reported Parent/caregiver Not reported Not reported Not reported
Berry et al., 2008 [33] 37 Mean: 28 yrs. Range:18–59 yrs.; 73% Female Parent/caregiver Mean: 3 Range:1.5–11 yrs. 68% public insurance, 18% private insurance Not reported
Bingham et al., 2015 [34] 1531 Not reported Parent/caregiver Not reported Not reported Not reported
Buboltz et al., 2015 [35] 12 Not reported;
100% Female
Mothers (1 grandmother) Not reported Considered part of a vulnerable population Not reported
Burokienė et al., 2017 [36] 381 <  35 yrs. (69.5%)
Gender not reported
Parent/caregiver Not reported 65% held a university degree Non-urgent
Cabey et al., 2018 [37] 57 Mean: 33 yrs.;
Gender not reported
Parent/caregiver Mean: 6.5 years 56.1% employed; 28.1% private insurance Not reported
Chin et al., 2006 [38] 12 Not reported Parent/caregiver Not reported All were from zip codes known to represent low- income areas. Not reported
Cooper et al., 2003 [39] 694 Not reported Parent/caregiver Not reported Not reported Not reported
Ellbrandt et al., 2018 [40] 657 Not reported Parent/caregiver Range: 0-17 yrs Lower socioeconomic status contributed to direct care-seeking by almost 40% of parents Not reported
Fieldston et al., 2012 [41] 25 Not reported Parent/caregiver < 5 yrs Not reported Not reported
Fredrickson et al., 2004 [42] 2773 Not reported Parent/caregiver Range: 0-17 yrs Medicaid insured children included Asthma
Freed et al., 2016 [43] 1150 Age Range: 20-40 yrs.
Gender not reported
Parent/caregiver < 9 yrs Not reported Lower urgency
Gafforini et al., 2016 [44] 1150 Age Range:20-40 yrs.
Gender not reported
Parent/caregiver < 9 yrs Not reported Lower urgency
Grant et al., 2010 [45] 112 Not reported Parent/caregiver Mean: 5.7 yrs 95% were African American and 5% white; 80.6% had Medicaid/SCHIP, 7.8% commercial, and 3.9% other insurance; 7.8% were uninsured Not reported
Grigg et al., 2013 [46] 20 Range: 26-35 yrs. (65%);
79% Female
Parent/caregiver Not reported Latino families Non-urgent
Guttman et al., 2003 [25] 331 Not reported Parent/caregiver Range: 0-18 yrs 45% private insurance Non-urgent
Harrold et al., 2018 [47] 1533 Not reported Parent/caregiver Range: 0–28 days Not reported Not reported
Hendry et al., 2004 [48] 465 Not reported Parent/caregiver   Lower socio-economic were over-represented Not reported
Ingram et al., 2013 [49] 60 Age not reported
91% Female
Parent/caregiver Range: 0-17 yrs Stratified for socio-economic factors Respiratory Infection
Janicke et al., 2003 [50] 87 Mean: 38.4 yrs.
94.3% Female
Parent/caregiver Range: 4-9 yrs White (89.7%), married (87.4%), and upper-middle socioeconomic status families. 96.6% had health insurance Not reported
Klein et al., 2011 [51] Interviewed (N ¼ 20) and non-interviewed (N ¼ 65) Not reported Parent/caregiver Range:24-29mths Mostly Medicaid insured High frequency visitors
Kua et al., 2016 [52] 49 Age Not reported
55% Female
Parent/caregiver Mean: 4.3 yrs., Range: 0-15 yrs Not reported Non-urgent
Kubicek et al., 2012 [53] 106 Not reported Parent/caregiver   45% held an educational level lower than high school; 76% identifiedas Latino/Hispanic, 10% as African American, 7% as White/Caucasian and 5% as Asian; 49% reported an annual household income ofless than $20,000 Non-urgent
Lara et al., 2003 [54] 234 Mean: 31.5 yrs.;
80% Female
Parent/caregiver Mean: 9.4 yrs 69% Latin American Asthma
Lass et al., 2018 [55] 9 Range: 27-42 yrs.; 100% Female Parent/caregiver Range: 1-8 yrs High-income sample Not reported
Long et al., 2018 [26] 96 Range: 18-22 yrs.; Gender not reported Parent/caregiver Range: 0-18 yrs 91.7% had high school degree level of education. 60.4% had full-time jobs. 32.3% had an estimated annual income of $35,000 of estimated total annual household income. Not reported
May et al., 2018 [56] 50 Range: 18-45 yrs.; Majority Female Parent/caregiver Range: 0-8 yrs 45–80% low income Not reported
Morrison et al., 2014 [57] 299 Not reported Parent/caregiver Median: 2 yrs. Not reported Non-urgent
Mostajer et al., 2016 [58] 15 Not reported;
66% Female
Parent/caregiver > 10 yrs Not reported Dental
Newcomb et al., 2005 [27] 403 Range: 14-19 yrs.;-50-63 yrs.
Majority Female
Parent/caregiver Range: 4mths-18 yrs Publicly insured children Non-urgent
Nokoff et al., 2014 [59] 234 Mean = 31.5 yrs.; 90% Female Parent/caregiver Mean: 5/6 yrs Not clear Acute illness
Ogilivie et al., 2016 [60] 337 Range: 24-45 yrs.; 79.5% Female Parent/caregiver <  18 yrs 4 deprivation deciles, Most deprived (19%) Not reported
Pethe et al., 2019 120 Median = 4.5 yrs.; Gender not reported Parent/caregiver Range: 0-19 yrs. Not reported Not reported
Phelps et al., 2000 [61] 200 Mean = 30 yrs.; 82% Female Parent/caregiver Mean: 6.2 yrs 60% unemployed Not reported
Philips et al., 2012 [62] 166 Mean = 31 yrs.; 76.5% Female Parent/caregiver Not reported Not reported Not reported
Philips et al., 2010 [63] 166 Mean = 31 yrs.; 76.5% Female Parent/caregiver Not reported Not reported Not reported
Salami et al., 2012 [64] 53 Not reported; 78.8% Female Parent/caregiver Not reported Mostly Hispanic & African American Not reported
Scott et al., 2003 [65] 3326 Mean = 34 yrs., Range: 16-75 yrs.; 87.4% Female Parent/caregiver Mean: 6.9 yrs. Range: 0–25 yrs. 17% University Educated Not reported
Sharma et al., 2014 22 Not reported Parent/caregiver Range: 4mths - 12 yrs Not reported Not reported
Siminski et al., 2008 [66] not reported Not reported Parent/caregiver Range: 0-14 yrs Not reported Not reported
Smith et al., 2015 [67] 300 Not reported 92% parents Range: 1–13 yrs Not reported Not reported
Stanley et al., 2007 [68] 422 Not reported 81% mothers, 12% fathers, 7% a grandparent/guardian. Range: 0-17 yrs 51% Medicaid enrolees, 43% privately insured Non-urgent
Stingone et al., 2005 [69] 5250 Not reported Parent/caregiver Range: 5 -12 yrs. Not reported Asthma
Stockwell et al., 2011 [70] 118 Not reported Parent/caregiver Mean: 6.4 yrs Most children Latino, had Medicaid, in less than excellent health, had a foreign-born mother with a high school education or less Influenza-like symptoms
Stoddart et al., 2006 [71] 15 Mean: 32.4 yrs. (exc.grandmother);
93% Female
Parent/caregiver/grandmother Not reported Not reported Not reported
Turbitt et al., 2016 [72] 1146 Range: 20-40 yrs.
Gender not reported
Parent/caregiver Range: 1-9 yrs 13% had estimated annual income of less than $25,000 Not reported
Vaughn et al., 2012 [73] 57 Not reported Parent/caregiver Not reported Latino population, 61% unemployed Not reported
Williams et al., 2009 [74] 355 < 20 - > 40 years
N = 349 Female
Parent/caregiver Not reported 10.7% - Most disadvantaged
18.2% -Disadvantaged
70.1% -Least disadvantaged
Non-urgent
Woolfenden et al., 2000 [75] 25 Not reported Parent/caregiver Not reported Not reported Non-urgent
Zandieh et al., 2009 [76] 170 Not reported Parent/caregiver ED Mean: 7 yrs., PCP Mean: 5 yrs Not reported Non-urgent
Zickafoose et al., 2015 [77] 820 Range: 18-60 yrs.; 54% Female Parent/caregiver Range: 0-17 yrs Not reported Not reported
Zickafoose et al., 2013 [78] 20 Age not reported;
75% Female
Parent/caregiver Range: 1 - 5 yrs Not reported Not reported