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Table 3 Intervention effects on secondary outcomes based on an intention-to-treat analysis (adjusted for covariates at the baseline)

From: TALKING TIME: A pilot randomized controlled trial investigating social support for informal caregivers via the telephone

Overall n = 38 caregivers   Differences between T1 and T0
Adjusted for covariatesa Effect Size/Estimated score [95% CI]
Informal caregivers
Self-rated physical HRQoL (0–100, PCS) 0.12 [− 1.98–2.21]
  Intervention group 2 (n = 17)   −1.7 [− 6.4–3.0]
  Control group 1 (n = 14)   − 2.1 [− 7.4–3.2]
Perceived Social Support Caregiving (9–45, PSSC) 0.43 [−1.67–2.52]
  Intervention group (n = 17)   3.9 [0.2–7.7]
  Control group (n = 14)   2.6 [− 1.6–6.9]
CRS self-esteem (7–35)   − 0.31 [− 2.41–1.79]
  Intervention group (n = 16)   − 0.3 [− 2.1–1.5]
  Control group (n = 14)   0.1 [− 1.8–2.1]
CRS lack of family support (5–25) −2.56 [− 4.65 - -0.46]
  Intervention group (n = 17)   − 1.1 [− 2.2–0.1]
  Control group (n = 14)   1.3 [0.0–2.6]
CRS impact on finances (3–15)   − 0.46 [− 2.55–1.63]
  Intervention group (n = 17)   −0.7 [− 1.7–0.2]
  Control group (n = 14)   −0.4 [− 1.5–0.7]
CRS impact on daily schedule (5–25) − 0.42 [− 2.51–1.68]
  Intervention group (n = 17)   − 0.1 [− 1.8–1.5]
  Control group (n = 14)   0.4 [− 1.4–2.3]
CRS impact on health score (4–20) 0.52 [− 1.58–2.61]
  Intervention group (n = 17)   0.9 [− 0.2–1.9]
  Control group (n = 14)   0.4 [− 0.8–1.6]
People with dementia
NPI-Q irritability (0–3)   1.22 [− 0.87–3.31]
  Intervention group (n = 17)   0.2 [− 0.3–0.6]
  Control group (n = 14)   −0.3 [− 0.7–0.2]
  1. a Covariates depending on the respective secondary outcome: physical component score, caregiver self-esteem, caregiver lack of family support, caregiver impact on finances, caregiver impact on daily schedule, caregiver impact on health, perceived social support, irritability, functional activities, mental component score
  2. CI 95% confidence interval 95%, Effect Size / Estimated score = top row shows the standardized effect size CI and p-value, lower rows show the model-based estimated least square means of the intervention effect, PCS Physical Component Summary, PSSC Perceived Social Support Caregiving, CRS Caregiver Reaction Scale, NPI-Q Neuropsychiatric Inventory – Q, FAQ Functional Activities Questionnaire