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Table 2 Intervention effects on the informal caregiver with regard to the primary outcome based on an intention-to-treat analysis (adjusted and not adjusted for covariates at the baseline)

From: TALKING TIME: A pilot randomized controlled trial investigating social support for informal caregivers via the telephone

Overall n = 38 informal caregivers Difference between T1 and T0
Adjusted for covariatesa Estimated score [95% CI]
Self-rated psychological HRQoL score (0–100, MCS, primary outcome)
 Intervention group (n = 17)   3.3 [−0.9–7.6]
 Control group 1 (n = 14)   −2.4 [− 7.3–2.4]
 Effect sizeb
Standardized effect sizec
5.77 [− 1.53–13.07]
1.65[− 0.44–3.75]
 Covariates for adjustment: regression parameter [95% CI] PCS score
PSSC-Score
CRS self-esteem score
CRS lack of family support score
CRS impact on finances score
CRS impact on daily schedule score
CRS impact on health score
MCS score (baseline)
NPI-Q irritability score
FAQ score
0.1 [− 0.3–0.5]
0.1 [− 0.3–0.5]
− 0.3 [− 1.2–0.7]
− 0.2 [− 0.8–0.5]
0.3 [− 0.9–1.5]
− 0.7 [− 2.1–0.7]
− 1.2 [−3.1–0.7]
− 0.5 [− 1.0–0.0]
0.9 [− 2.8–4.7]
− 0.1 [− 0.8–0.6]
Not adjusted
Self-rated psychological HRQoL score (0–100, MCS, primary outcome)
 Intervention group 2 (n = 18)   1.21 [−3.03–5.44]
 Control group 1 (n = 17)   − 0.48 [− 4.84–3.87]
 Effect sizeb
Standardized effect sizec
1.69. [− 4.39–7.77]
0.57[− 1.47–2.60]
  1. a Covariates: physical component score, caregiver self-esteem, caregiver lack of family support, caregiver impact on finances, caregiver impact on daily schedule, caregiver impact on health, perceived social support, irritability, functional activities, mental component score
  2. b Effect size: computed as difference in estimated scores
  3. c Standardized effect sizes: computed as difference in estimated scores divided by standard deviation
  4. CI-95% confidence interval 95%, Estimated score model-based estimated least square means, MCS Mental Component Summary, PCS Physical Component Summary, PSSC Perceived Social Support Caregiving, CRS Caregiver Reaction Scale, NPI-Q Neuropsychiatric Inventory – Q, FAQ Functional Activities Questionnaire, QoL-AD Quality of Life Alzheimer’s Disease scale, NPI-NH Neuropsychiatric Inventory