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Table 3 Determinants of healthcare utilization in the middle-aged and elderly in 2011, 2013 and 2015

From: Medical insurance and healthcare utilization among the middle-aged and elderly in China: evidence from the China health and retirement longitudinal study 2011, 2013 and 2015

Variables Reference Group Outpatient Service Utilization Inpatient Service Utilization
Coefficient SE p Coefficient SE p
Gender Female       
 Male   0.239 0.037 0.000 − 0.062 0.045 0.168
Age [45,55]       
 (55,65]   −0.008 0.041 0.837 0.345 0.052 0.000
 (65, +∞)   0.169 0.049 0.001 0.739 0.060 0.000
Marital Status Married or Cohabitated       
 Divorced, Widowed, Never Married, Separated −0.030 0.056 0.590 0.011 0.065 0.869
Education Status Below Primary School       
 Primary School   0.067 0.046 0.143 0.005 0.055 0.922
 Secondary School   0.094 0.057 0.101 −0.095 0.070 0.176
 High School and Above   0.148 0.071 0.036 −0.260 0.087 0.003
Registration Place Non-rural areas       
 Rural areas   0.053 0.041 0.192 −0.087 0.050 0.078
Region Eastern       
 Central   −0.072 0.043 0.094 0.182 0.054 0.001
 Western   0.039 0.043 0.356 0.398 0.053 0.000
Household Size 1–2       
  3–4   0.142 0.040 0.000 0.126 0.048 0.008
  ≥5   0.249 0.046 0.000 0.139 0.056 0.013
Chronic Diseasesa No       
  Yes   0.467 0.040 0.000 0.403 0.049 0.000
Self-Reported Health Good       
 Fair   0.630 0.046 0.000 0.625 0.059 0.000
 Poor   1.364 0.055 0.000 1.584 0.067 0.000
Depression Low       
 Moderate   0.315 0.039 0.000 0.254 0.047 0.000
 High   0.480 0.072 0.000 0.367 0.084 0.000
Economic Status Quintile 1 (Poorest)       
 Quintile 2   0.243 0.052 0.000 0.258 0.068 0.000
 Quintile 3   0.283 0.053 0.000 0.609 0.067 0.000
 Quintile 4   0.317 0.054 0.000 0.796 0.067 0.000
 Quintile 5   0.494 0.056 0.000 1.058 0.070 0.000
Medical Insurance Schemes NRCMS       
 UEBMI   0.009 0.060 0.882 0.340 0.070 0.000
 URBMI   −0.172 0.072 0.016 0.136 0.082 0.095
 PMI   0.024 0.109 0.827 0.226 0.131 0.083
 NONE   −0.422 0.077 0.000 −0.545 0.100 0.000
  1. McKelvey & Zavoina’s R2 of the model used in our study were 0.1027 (outpatient service utilization) and 0.1493(inpatient service utilization)
  2. NRCMS New Rural Cooperative Medical Insurance Scheme, UEBMI Urban Employees Basic Medical Insurance, URBMI Urban Residents’ Basic Medical Insurance, PMI Private Medical Insurance
  3. a Chronic diseases included hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes or high blood sugar, cancer or malignant tumor (excluding minor skin cancers), chronic lung diseases, such as chronic bronchitis, emphysema (excluding tumors, or cancer), liver disease (except fatty liver, tumors, and cancer), heart attack, stroke, kidney disease (except for tumor or cancer), stomach or other digestive disease (except for tumor or cancer), emotional, nervous, or psychiatric problems, memory-related disease, arthritis or rheumatism and asthma. In the surveys, people were asked whether they had ever been diagnosed with one of the listed chronic diseases and their responses were recorded