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Table 2 Healthcare utilization patterns and univariate analysis in the middle-aged and elderly in 2011, 2013 and 2015

From: Medical insurance and healthcare utilization among the middle-aged and elderly in China: evidence from the China health and retirement longitudinal study 2011, 2013 and 2015

Variables Outpatient Service Utilization Inpatient Service Utilization
2011
N = 17,250
2013
N = 18,195
2015
N = 19,842
2011
N = 17,250
2013
N = 18,195
2015
N = 19,842
n (%) a p n (%) p n (%) p n (%) p n (%) p n (%) p
Medical Insurance Schemes   0.000   0.000   0.000   0.000   0.000   0.000
 NRCMS 2371 (19.6)   2706 (21.4)   2528 (19.4)   1129 (9.2)   1753 (13.6)   1830 (13.9)  
 UEBMI 328 (16.0)   476 (20.2)   502 (18.3)   277 (13.2)   418 (17.3)   485 (17.3)  
 URBMI 163 (17.5)   236 (18.8)   237 (17.7)   101 (10.7)   179 (14.0)   220 (16.2)  
 PMI 100 (18.7)   93 (17.1)   36 (19.8)   59 (10.9)   59 (10.7)   27 (14.7)  
 NONE 150 (13.4)   114 (16.0)   227 (14.1)   59 (5.2)   56 (7.7)   195 (12.0)  
Economic Status 0.011   0.001   0.004   0.000   0.000   0.000
 Quintile 1 (Poorest) 473 (16.6)   433 (18.2)   440 (16.2)   176 (6.1)   230 (9.6)   278 (10.1)  
 Quintile 2 565 (19.8)   482 (20.5)   500 (18.8)   233 (8.1)   279 (11.7)   283 (10.5)  
 Quintile 3 528 (18.6)   468 (20.1)   483 (18.6)   275 (9.6)   314 (13.2)   365 (13.8)  
 Quintile 4 552 (19.7)   470 (20.2)   471 (18.3)   318 (11.2)   349 (14.8)   421 (16.1)  
 Quintile 5 534 (19.1)   532 (23.2)   512 (20.3)   378 (13.2)   407 (17.3)   471 (18.2)  
Gender   0.000   0.000   0.000   0.706   0.736   0.025
 Female 1325 (16.2)   1558 (18.1)   1561 (16.5)   803 (9.6)   1214 (13.9)   1315 (13.7)  
 Male 1792 (20.8)   2095 (23.1)   2054 (20.7)   828 (9.5)   1272 (13.7)   1498 (14.9)  
Age   0.000   0.000   0.000   0.000   0.000   0.000
 [45,55] 1118 (16.7)   1242 (19.1)   1259 (17.4)   459 (6.7)   661 (10.0)   724 (9.9)  
 [55,65] 1140 (19.1)   1290 (20.2)   1225 (18.6)   593 (9.8)   900 (13.8)   937 (14.0)  
 (65, +∞) 859 (20.9)   1121 (23.4)   1131 (20.4)   579 (13.9)   925 (19.1)   1152 (20.5)  
Marital Status   0.010   0.000   0.017   0.108   0.000   0.000
 Married or Cohabitated 2667 (18.3)   3102 (20.2)   3081 (18.4)   1398 (9.4)   2093 (13.4)   2305 (13.6)  
 Divorced, Widowed, Never Married, Separated 450 (20.6)   551 (23.9)   534 (20.4)   233 (10.5)   393 (16.7)   508 (19.1)  
Education Status   0.000   0.000   0.006   0.043   0.000   0.000
 Below Primary School 979 (21.0)   1057 (22.5)   999 (20.3)   482 (10.2)   693 (14.5)   824 (16.5)  
 Primary School 1252 (19.1)   1475 (21.1)   1564 (18.4)   654 (9.8)   1058 (14.9)   1208 (14.0)  
 Secondary School 560 (16.2)   713 (19.3)   658 (17.6)   314 (8.9)   433 (11.5)   502 (13.2)  
 High School and Above 325 (15.4)   408 (17.9)   390 (17.9)   180 (8.3)   301 (12.9)   275 (12.3)  
Registration Place   0.000   0.025   0.003   0.002   0.000   0.010
 Non-rural areas 1138 (16.9)   1395 (19.8)   1368 (17.6)   715 (10.4)   1081 (15.0)   1194 (15.1)  
 Rural areas 1979 (19.7)   2258 (21.2)   2247 (19.3)   916 (9.0)   1405 (13.0)   1619 (13.8)  
Region   0.085   0.000   0.000   0.000   0.000   0.000
 Eastern 1032 (17.7)   1154 (18.8)   1178 (17.4)   439 (7.4)   693 (11.2)   827 (12.0)  
 Central 1039 (18.8)   1142 (19.8)   1137 (18.0)   535 (9.5)   806 (13.7)   891 (14.0)  
 Western 1046 (19.2)   1357 (23.6)   1300 (20.7)   657 (11.9)   986 (16.8)   1095 (17.2)  
Household Size   0.000   0.000   0.758   0.000   0.000   0.000
 1–2 1132 (18.6)   1244 (20.0)   1452 (18.7)   660 (10.7)   981 (15.5)   1237 (15.7)  
 3–4 977 (17.1)   1244 (20.2)   1695 (18.5)   484 (8.3)   766 (12.2)   1276 (13.7)  
 ≥5 1008 (20.2)   1165 (22.0)   468 (19.2)   487 (9.6)   739 (13.8)   300 (12.1)  
Chronic Diseasesb   0.000   0.000   0.000   0.000   0.000   0.000
 No 545 (10.0)   901 (14.4)   1015 (13.7)   246 (4.5)   532 (8.4)   718 (9.6)  
 Yes 2571 (22.7)   2736 (24.0)   2597 (21.7)   1384 (12.0)   1947 (16.8)   2093 (17.2)  
Self-reported Health   0.000   0.000   0.000   0.000   0.000   0.000
 Good 277 (8.2)   483 (11.1)   450 (9.7)   141 (4.2)   305 (7.0)   308 (6.6)  
 Fair 952 (16.8)   1741 (19.7)   1742 (17.8)   478 (8.3)   1052 (11.7)   1187 (12.0)  
 Poor 938 (30.9)   1264 (34.6)   1212 (32.1)   579 (18.6)   975 (26.0)   1106 (28.5)  
Depression   0.000   0.000   0.000   0.000   0.000   0.000
 Mild 1779 (15.1)   2388 (17.9)   2271 (16.0)   978 (8.2)   1620 (12.0)   1742 (12.1)  
 Moderate 1074 (25.9)   1028 (27.9)   1014 (24.3)   510 (12.1)   703 (18.7)   808 (19.0)  
 Severe 263 (31.0)   221 (37.0)   327 (33.9)   142 (16.4)   156 (25.3)   261 (26.5)  
  1. NRCMS New Rural Cooperative Medical Insurance Scheme, UEBMI Urban Employees Basic Medical Insurance, URBMI Urban Residents’ Basic Medical Insurance, PMI Private Medical Insurance
  2. a “n” means the number of individuals in each group who used healthcare service and “%” means the proportion of individuals in each group who used healthcare service
  3. b Chronic diseases included hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes or high blood sugar, cancer or malignant tumor (excluding minor skin cancers), chronic lung diseases, such as chronic bronchitis, emphysema (excluding tumors, or cancer), liver disease (except fatty liver, tumors, and cancer), heart attack, stroke, kidney disease (except for tumor or cancer), stomach or other digestive disease (except for tumor or cancer), emotional, nervous, or psychiatric problems, memory-related disease, arthritis or rheumatism and asthma. In the surveys, people were asked whether they had ever been diagnosed with one of the listed chronic diseases and their responses were recorded